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Repurposing the natural compounds as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 based on the molecular docking study of the main protease and the receptor-binding domain of spike protein

Eskandari, V., Journal of Molecular Modeling, doi:10.1007/s00894-022-05138-3
May 2022  
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In Silico study identifying folic acid, among other compounds, as a potential inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and spike proteins.
13 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin B9 for COVID-19:
Vitamin B9 has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin B9 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 In Silico Chen, Eskandari, Hosseini, Kumar, Moatasim, Pandya, Serseg, Ugurel, Zhang, reduces spike protein binding ability Zhang, binds with the spike protein receptor binding domain for alpha and omicron variants Pennisi, inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein Chen, inhibits 3CLpro and PLpro in enzymatic assays Pennisi, significantly reduces infection for alpha and omicron SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses Pennisi, and inhibits ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infection in a mouse model Zhang.
Eskandari et al., 16 May 2022, peer-reviewed, 1 author. Contact: veskandari@znu.ac.ir.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperVitamin B9All
Repurposing the natural compounds as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 based on the molecular docking study of the main protease and the receptor-binding domain of spike protein
Vajiheh Eskandari
Journal of Molecular Modeling, doi:10.1007/s00894-022-05138-3
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) enters the cell by interacting with the human angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike (S) protein. In the cell, the viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme is essential for its life cycle and controls coronavirus replication. Therefore, the S-RBD and 3CLpro are hot targets for drug discovery against SARS-CoV-2. This study was to identify repurposing drugs using in silico screening, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. The study identified bentiamine, folic acid, benfotiamine, and vitamin B12 against the RBD of S protein and bentiamine, folic acid, fursultiamine, and riboflavin to 3CLpro. The strong and stable binding of these safe and cheap vitamins at the important residues (R403, K417, Y449, Y453, N501, and Y505) in the S-protein-ACE2 interface and 3CLpro binding site residues especially active site residues (His 41 and Cys 145), indicating that they could be valuable repurpose drugs for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host and replication.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s00894-022-05138-3. Author contribution This manuscript has been done by myself, and there was no coauthor. Declarations Ethics approval This study does not require ethics approval. Consent to participate This study does not require participant approval. Consent for publication This study does not require publication approval. Competing interests The author declares no competing interests. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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