Antiviral Activity of Repurposing Ivermectin against a Panel of 30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2 Strains Belonging to 14 Variants
Delandre et al.
, Antiviral Activity of Repurposing Ivermectin against a Panel of 30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2 Strains Belonging to 14..
, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15040445 (In Vitro)
study with 30 COVID-19 strains from 14 variants, showing stronger efficacy with ivermectin compared to CQ and remdesivir, and relatively homogeneous efficacy with ivermectin regardless of strain/variant, in contrast to results for CQ and remdesivir.
Remdesivir showed better efficacy for omicron compared to most other variants.[Gérard, Wu, Zhou]
show significantly increased risk of acute kidney injury with remdesivir.
3 In Vitro
studies support the efficacy of remdesivir [De Forni, Delandre, Jeffreys]
Delandre et al., 2 Apr 2022, peer-reviewed, 12 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
Antiviral Activity of Repurposing Ivermectin against a Panel of
30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2 Strains Belonging to 14 Variants
Océane Delandre 1,2,3, Mathieu Gendrot 1,2,3, Priscilla Jardot 3,4, Marion Le Bideau 3,4, Manon Boxberger 3,4,
Céline Boschi 3,4, Isabelle Fonta 1,2,3,5, Joel Mosnier 1,2,3,5, Sébastien Hutter 2,3, Anthony Levasseur 3,4,
Bernard La Scola 3,4 and Bruno Pradines 1,2,3,5,*
Unité Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses,
Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 13005 Marseille, France; firstname.lastname@example.org (O.D.);
email@example.com (M.G.); firstname.lastname@example.org (I.F.); email@example.com (J.M.)
2 Aix Marseille University, IRD, SSA, AP-HM, VITROME, 13005 Marseille, France;
3 IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France; firstname.lastname@example.org (P.J.);
email@example.com (M.L.B.); firstname.lastname@example.org (M.B.);
email@example.com (C.B.); firstname.lastname@example.org (A.L.); email@example.com (B.L.S.)
4 Aix Marseille University, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, 13005 Marseille, France
5 Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, 13005 Marseille, France
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Citation: Delandre, O.; Gendrot, M.;
Jardot, P.; Le Bideau, M.;
Boxberger, M.; Boschi, C.; Fonta, I.;
Mosnier, J.; Hutter, S.; Levasseur, A.;
et al. Antiviral Activity of
Repurposing Ivermectin against a
Panel of 30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2
Strains Belonging to 14 Variants.
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15, 445.
Academic Editors: Zoidis Grigoris
and Serena Massari
Received: 3 February 2022
Accepted: 30 March 2022
Published: 2 April 2022
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional
Abstract: Over the past two years, several variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged and spread all
over the world. However, infectivity, clinical severity, re-infection, virulence, transmissibility, vaccine responses and escape, and epidemiological aspects have differed between SARS-CoV-2 variants. Currently, very few treatments are recommended against SARS-CoV-2. Identification of effective drugs among repurposing FDA-approved drugs is a rapid, efficient and low-cost strategy
against SARS-CoV-2. One of those drugs is ivermectin. Ivermectin is an antihelminthic agent that
previously showed in vitro effects against a SARS-CoV-2 isolate (Australia/VI01/2020 isolate) with an
IC50 of around 2 µM. We evaluated the in vitro activity of ivermectin on Vero E6 cells infected with 30
clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains belonging to 14 different variants, and particularly 17 strains
belonging to six variants of concern (VOC) (variants related to Wuhan, alpha, beta, gamma, delta and
omicron). The in vitro activity of ivermectin was compared to those of chloroquine and remdesivir.
Unlike chloroquine (EC50 from 4.3 ± 2.5 to 29.3 ± 5.2 µM) or remdesivir (EC50 from 0.4 ± 0.3 to 25.2 ± 9.4
µM), ivermectin showed a relatively homogeneous in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 regardless of
the strains or variants (EC50 from 5.1 ± 0.5 to 6.7 ± 0.4 µM), except for one omicron strain (EC50 = 1.3 ±
0.5 µM). Ivermectin (No. EC50 = 219, mean EC50 = 5.7 ± 1.0 µM) was, overall, more potent in vitro than
chloroquine (No. EC50 = 214, mean EC50 = 16.1 ± 9.0 µM) (p = 1.3 × 10−34) and remdesivir (No. EC50 = 201,
mean EC50 = 11.9 ± 10.0 µM) (p = 1.6 × 10−13). These results should be interpreted with caution regarding the..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.