Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All propolis studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchPropolisPropolis (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Ventilation 22% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 11% Hospitalization time 16% Secondary infection 68% AKI 25% Propolis  BeeCovid2  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with propolis beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 188 patients in Brazil (April - August 2021) Lower ventilation (p=0.54) and shorter hospitalization (p=0.19), not sig. c19early.org Silveira et al., Scientific Reports, Oct 2023 Favors propolis Favors control

Standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) in COVID-19 outcomes: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Silveira et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-43764-w, BeeCovid2, NCT04800224
Oct 2023  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
RCT 188 patients in Brazil, showing shorter hospitalization and improved outcomes with propolis, but without statistical significance. The incidence of secondary infections was significantly lower in the treatment group.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 22.4% lower, RR 0.78, p = 0.54, treatment 10 of 98 (10.2%), control 12 of 90 (13.3%), NNT 32, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of ICU admission, 11.4% lower, RR 0.89, p = 0.65, treatment 23 of 97 (23.7%), control 24 of 89 (27.0%), NNT 31, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
hospitalization time, 16.1% lower, relative time 0.84, p = 0.19, treatment mean 6.48 (±5.99) n=98, control mean 7.72 (±7.06) n=90.
secondary infection, 67.6% lower, RR 0.32, p = 0.02, treatment 6 of 98 (6.1%), control 17 of 90 (18.9%), NNT 7.8, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
AKI, 25.1% lower, RR 0.75, p = 0.41, treatment 13 of 98 (13.3%), control 16 of 90 (17.8%), NNT 22, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Silveira et al., 27 Oct 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 24 authors, study period April 2021 - August 2021, trial NCT04800224 (history) (BeeCovid2). Contact: marceloadsilveira@gmail.com.
This PaperPropolisAll
Standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) in COVID-19 outcomes: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Marcelo Augusto Duarte Silveira, Matheus De Alencar Menezes, Sergio Pinto De Souza, Erica Batista Dos Santos Galvão, Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Juliana Caldas, Maurício Brito Teixeira, Marcel Miranda Dantas Gomes, Lucas Petri Damiani, Bruno Andrade Bahiense, Julia Barros Cabral, Cicero Wandson Luiz Macedo De Oliveira, Talita Rocha Mascarenhas, Priscila Carvalho Guedes Pinheiro, Milena Souza Alves, Rodrigo Morel Vieira De Melo, Flávia Mendes Leite, Carolina Kymie Vasques Nonaka, Bruno Solano De Freitas Souza, Nathália Ursoli Baptista, Flávio Teles, Suzete Farias Da Guarda, Ana Verena Almeida Mendes, Rogério Da Hora Passos
Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-43764-w
SARS-CoV-2 and its different variants caused a "wave and wave" pandemic pattern. During the first wave we demonstrated that standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) reduces length of hospital stay in adult patients with COVID-19. Afterwards, we decided to evaluate the impact of EPP-AF in hospitalized patients during the third wave of the pandemic. BeeCovid2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients. Patients were allocated to receive an oral dose of 900 mg/day of EPP-AF® or placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included safety, secondary infection rate, duration of oxygen therapy dependency, acute kidney injury and need for intensive care. Patients were followed up for 28 days after admission. We enrolled 188 patients; 98 were assigned to the propolis group and 90 to the placebo group. The post-intervention length of hospital stay was of 6.5 ± 6.0 days in the propolis group versus 7.7 ± 7.1 days in the control group (95% CI -0.74 [-1.94 to 0.42]; p = 0.22). Propolis did not have significant impact on the need for oxygen supplementation or frequency of AKI. There was a significant difference in the incidence of secondary infection between groups, with 6.1% in the propolis group versus 18.9% in the control group (95% CI -0.28 [0.1-0.76], p = 0.01). The use of EPP-AF was considered safe and associated with a decrease in secondary infections. The drug was not associated with a significant reduction in length of hospital stay. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04800224). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a significant concern regarding its global impact on healthcare settings 1 . After the viral replication phase, there is an enormous immunological and inflammatory challenge since both innate and adaptive immunity may be disorderly activated by SARS-CoV-2 infection 2 . The magnitude of OPEN
Author contributions Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Additional information Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1038/ s41598-023-43764-w. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.A.D.S. Reprints and permissions information is available at www.nature.com/reprints. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
References
Ahmadian, Covid-19 and kidney injury: Pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms, Rev. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.2176
Anka, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An overview of the immunopathology, serological diagnosis and management, Scand. J. Immunol, doi:10.1111/sji.12998
Bahceci, Secondary bacterial infection rates among patients With COVID-19, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.22363
Berretta, Nascimento, Bueno, Vaz, Marchetti, Propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), an innovative chemically and biologically reproducible pharmaceutical compound for treating wounds, Int. J. Biol. Sci, doi:10.7150/ijbs.3641
Berretta, Silveira, Cóndor Capcha, De Jong, Propolis and its potential against SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and COVID-19 disease: Running title: Propolis against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19, Biomed. Pharmacother, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110622
Bojko, Drug dosing using estimated glomerular filtration rate: Misclassification due to metamizole interference in a creatinine assay, Ann. Clin. Biochem, doi:10.1177/00045632211020029
Chilamakuri, Agarwal, COVID-19: Characteristics and therapeutics, Cells, doi:10.3390/cells10020206
Chong, State-of-the-art review of secondary pulmonary infections in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-021-01602-z
Cusinato, Evaluation of potential herbal-drug interactions of a standardized propolis extract (EPP-AF®) using an in vivo cocktail approach, J. Ethnopharmacol, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2019.112174
Da, Kaempferol promotes apoptosis while inhibiting cell proliferation via androgen-dependent pathway and suppressing vasculogenic mimicry and invasion in prostate cancer, Anal Cell Pathol (Amst), doi:10.1155/2019/1907698
De Bruyn, Secondary infection in COVID-19 critically ill patients: A retrospective single-center evaluation, BMC Infect Dis, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07192-x
Duarte Silveira, Effects of standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) on inflammation in haemodialysis patients: A clinical trial, Int. J. Nephrol, doi:10.1155/2022/1035475
Fajgenbaum, June, Cytokine storm, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMra2026131
Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Complex immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure, Cell Host. Microbe, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009
Grasselli, Cattaneo, Florio, Secondary infections in critically ill patients with COVID-19, Crit. Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03672-9
Guler, Tatar, Yildiz, Belduz, Kolayli, Investigation of potential inhibitor properties of ethanolic propolis extracts against ACE-II receptors for COVID-19 treatment by molecular docking study, Arch. Microbiol, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02351-1
Hoffmann, SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor, Cell, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
Machado, Brazilian green propolis: Anti-inflammatory property by an immunomodulatory activity, Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med, doi:10.1155/2012/157652
Marquiafável, Development and characterization of a novel standardized propolis dry extract obtained by factorial design with high artepillin C content, J. Pharm. Technol. Drug Res, doi:10.7243/2050-120X-4-1
Maruta, He, PAK1-blockers: Potential therapeutics against COVID-19, Med. Drug. Discov, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100039
Melsen, Attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised prevention studies, Lancet Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70081-1
Miethke-Morais, COVID-19-related hospital cost-outcome analysis: The impact of clinical and demographic factors, Braz. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101609
Minihan, Association between tocilizumab treatment of hyperinflammatory patients with COVID-19 in a critical care setting and elevated incidence of hospital-acquired bacterial and invasive fungal infections, J Hosp Infect, doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2022.04.007
Nogueira, Silva, Moura, Duarte Silveira, Moura-Neto, Acute kidney injury and electrolyte disorders in COVID-19, World J. Virol, doi:10.5501/wjv.v11.i5.283
Rocha, Evaluation of a propolis water extract using a reliable RP-HPLC methodology and in vitro and in vivo efficacy and safety characterisation, Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med, doi:10.1155/2013/670451
Silveira, Effects of Brazilian green propolis on proteinuria and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, BMC Nephrol, doi:10.1186/s12882-019-1337-7
Silveira, Efficacy of Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF®) as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A randomized, controlled clinical trial, Biomed. Pharmacother, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111526
Silveira, Green propolis extract attenuates acute kidney injury and lung injury in a rat model of sepsis, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85124-6
Silveira, The use of standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF) as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients (BeeCovid2): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06176-1
Woisky, Salatino, Analysis of propolis: Some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control, J. Apic. Res, doi:10.1080/00218839.1998.11100961
Wu, Acute kidney injury associated with remdesivir: A comprehensive pharmacovigilance analysis of COVID-19 reports in FAERS, Front. Pharmacol, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.692828
{ 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-023-43764-w', 'ISSN': ['2045-2322'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-43764-w', 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>SARS-CoV-2 and its different variants caused a “wave ' 'and wave” pandemic pattern. During the first wave we demonstrated that standardized Brazilian ' 'green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) reduces length of hospital stay in adult patients with ' 'COVID-19. Afterwards, we decided to evaluate the impact of EPP-AF in hospitalized patients ' 'during the third wave of the pandemic. BeeCovid2 was a randomized, double-blind, ' 'placebo-controlled clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients. Patients were ' 'allocated to receive an oral dose of 900\xa0mg/day of EPP-AF® or placebo for 10\xa0days. The ' 'primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included safety, secondary ' 'infection rate, duration of oxygen therapy dependency, acute kidney injury and need for ' 'intensive care. Patients were followed up for 28\xa0days after admission. We enrolled 188 ' 'patients; 98 were assigned to the propolis group and 90 to the placebo group. The ' 'post-intervention length of hospital stay was of 6.5\u2009±\u20096.0\xa0days in the propolis ' 'group versus 7.7\u2009±\u20097.1\xa0days in the control group (95% CI − 0.74 [− 1.94 to ' '0.42]; <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.22). Propolis did not have significant ' 'impact on the need for oxygen supplementation or frequency of AKI. There was a significant ' 'difference in the incidence of secondary infection between groups, with 6.1% in the propolis ' 'group versus 18.9% in the control group (95% CI − 0.28 [0.1–0.76], ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.01). The use of EPP-AF was considered safe and ' 'associated with a decrease in secondary infections. The drug was not associated with a ' 'significant reduction in length of hospital stay. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04800224).</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['43764'], 'article-number': '18405', 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 1, 'value': '8 March 2023'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 2, 'value': '28 September 2023'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'First Online', 'name': 'first_online', 'order': 3, 'value': '27 October 2023'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Competing interests', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 1, 'value': 'The authors declare no competing interests.'}], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Silveira', 'given': 'Marcelo Augusto Duarte', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Menezes', 'given': 'Matheus de Alencar', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'de Souza', 'given': 'Sergio Pinto', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Galvão', 'given': 'Erica Batista dos Santos', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Berretta', 'given': 'Andresa Aparecida', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Caldas', 'given': 'Juliana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Teixeira', 'given': 'Maurício Brito', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gomes', 'given': 'Marcel Miranda Dantas', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Damiani', 'given': 'Lucas Petri', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Bahiense', 'given': 'Bruno Andrade', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cabral', 'given': 'Julia Barros', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'De Oliveira', 'given': 'Cicero Wandson Luiz Macedo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Mascarenhas', 'given': 'Talita Rocha', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Pinheiro', 'given': 'Priscila Carvalho Guedes', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Alves', 'given': 'Milena Souza', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'de Melo', 'given': 'Rodrigo Morel Vieira', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Leite', 'given': 'Flávia Mendes', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Nonaka', 'given': 'Carolina Kymie Vasques', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Souza', 'given': 'Bruno Solano de Freitas', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Baptista', 'given': 'Nathália Ursoli', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Teles', 'given': 'Flávio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'da Guarda', 'given': 'Suzete Farias', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Mendes', 'given': 'Ana Verena Almeida', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Passos', 'given': 'Rogério da Hora', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Scientific Reports', 'container-title-short': 'Sci Rep', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': ['link.springer.com']}, 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-10-27T10:02:58Z', 'timestamp': 1698400978000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-10-27T10:04:21Z', 'timestamp': 1698401061000}, 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 28]], 'date-time': '2023-10-28T17:11:03Z', 'timestamp': 1698513063218}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '1', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 12]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-10-27T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1698364800000}}, { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-10-27T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1698364800000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-023-43764-w.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-023-43764-w', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-023-43764-w.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '297', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1038', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 27]]}, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.3390/cells10020206', 'author': 'R Chilamakuri', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '206', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Cells.', 'key': '43764_CR1', 'unstructured': 'Chilamakuri, R. & Agarwal, S. COVID-19: Characteristics and ' 'therapeutics. Cells. 10(2), 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020206 ' '(2021).', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/sji.12998', 'author': 'AU Anka', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e12998', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Scand. J. Immunol.', 'key': '43764_CR2', 'unstructured': 'Anka, A. U. et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An overview of ' 'the immunopathology, serological diagnosis and management. Scand. J. ' 'Immunol. 93(4), e12998. https://doi.org/10.1111/sji.12998 (2021).', 'volume': '93', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s15010-021-01602-z', 'author': 'WH Chong', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '591', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Infection.', 'key': '43764_CR3', 'unstructured': 'Chong, W. H. et al. State-of-the-art review of secondary pulmonary ' 'infections in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Infection. 49(4), ' '591–605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-021-01602-z (2021).', 'volume': '49', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMra2026131', 'author': 'DC Fajgenbaum', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2255', 'issue': '23', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.', 'key': '43764_CR4', 'unstructured': 'Fajgenbaum, D. C. & June, C. H. Cytokine storm. N. Engl. J. Med. ' '383(23), 2255–2273. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra2026131 (2020).', 'volume': '383', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2012/157652', 'author': 'JL Machado', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '157652', 'journal-title': 'Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med.', 'key': '43764_CR5', 'unstructured': 'Machado, J. L. et al. Brazilian green propolis: Anti-inflammatory ' 'property by an immunomodulatory activity. Evid. Based Complement. ' 'Alternat. Med. 2012, 157652. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/157652 (2012).', 'volume': '2012', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110622', 'author': 'AA Berretta', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '110622', 'journal-title': 'Biomed. Pharmacother.', 'key': '43764_CR6', 'unstructured': 'Berretta, A. A., Silveira, M. A. D., Cóndor Capcha, J. M. & De Jong, D. ' 'Propolis and its potential against SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and ' 'COVID-19 disease: Running title: Propolis against SARS-CoV-2 infection ' 'and COVID-19. Biomed. Pharmacother. 131, 110622. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110622 (2020).', 'volume': '131', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052', 'author': 'M Hoffmann', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '271', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Cell.', 'key': '43764_CR7', 'unstructured': 'Hoffmann, M. et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 ' 'and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 181(2), ' '271-280.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052 (2020).', 'volume': '181', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00203-021-02351-1', 'author': 'HI Guler', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3557', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Arch. Microbiol.', 'key': '43764_CR8', 'unstructured': 'Guler, H. I., Tatar, G., Yildiz, O., Belduz, A. O. & Kolayli, S. ' 'Investigation of potential inhibitor properties of ethanolic propolis ' 'extracts against ACE-II receptors for COVID-19 treatment by molecular ' 'docking study. Arch. Microbiol. 203(6), 3557–3564. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02351-1 (2021).', 'volume': '203', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100039', 'author': 'H Maruta', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100039', 'journal-title': 'Med. Drug. Discov.', 'key': '43764_CR9', 'unstructured': 'Maruta, H. & He, H. PAK1-blockers: Potential therapeutics against ' 'COVID-19. Med. Drug. Discov. 6, 100039. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100039 (2020).', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2019/1907698', 'author': 'J Da', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1907698', 'journal-title': 'Anal Cell Pathol (Amst).', 'key': '43764_CR10', 'unstructured': 'Da, J. et al. Kaempferol promotes apoptosis while inhibiting cell ' 'proliferation via androgen-dependent pathway and suppressing ' 'vasculogenic mimicry and invasion in prostate cancer. Anal Cell Pathol ' '(Amst). 2019, 1907698. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1907698 (2019).', 'volume': '2019', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111526', 'author': 'MAD Silveira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '111526', 'journal-title': 'Biomed. Pharmacother.', 'key': '43764_CR11', 'unstructured': 'Silveira, M. A. D. et al. Efficacy of Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF®) ' 'as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A ' 'randomized, controlled clinical trial. Biomed. Pharmacother. 138, ' '111526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111526 (2021).', 'volume': '138', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s13063-022-06176-1', 'author': 'MAD Silveira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '255', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Trials.', 'key': '43764_CR12', 'unstructured': 'Silveira, M. A. D. et al. The use of standardized Brazilian green ' 'propolis extract (EPP-AF) as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized ' 'COVID-19 patients (BeeCovid2): A structured summary of a study protocol ' 'for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 23(1), 255. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06176-1 (2022).', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.7150/ijbs.3641', 'author': 'AA Berretta', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '512', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Int. J. Biol. Sci.', 'key': '43764_CR13', 'unstructured': 'Berretta, A. A., Nascimento, A. P., Bueno, P. C., Vaz, M. M. & ' 'Marchetti, J. M. Propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), an innovative ' 'chemically and biologically reproducible pharmaceutical compound for ' 'treating wounds. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 8(4), 512–521. ' 'https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.3641 (2012).', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.7243/2050-120X-4-1', 'author': 'FS Marquiafável', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J. Pharm. Technol. Drug Res.', 'key': '43764_CR14', 'unstructured': 'Marquiafável, F. S. et al. Development and characterization of a novel ' 'standardized propolis dry extract obtained by factorial design with high ' 'artepillin C content. J. Pharm. Technol. Drug Res. 4(1), 1–13. ' 'https://doi.org/10.7243/2050-120X-4-1 (2015).', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/00218839.1998.11100961', 'author': 'RG Woisky', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '99', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'J. Apic. Res.', 'key': '43764_CR15', 'unstructured': 'Woisky, R. G. & Salatino, A. Analysis of propolis: Some parameters and ' 'procedures for chemical quality control. J. Apic. Res. 37(2), 99–105. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1998.11100961 (1998).', 'volume': '37', 'year': '1998'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2013/670451', 'author': 'BA Rocha', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '670451', 'journal-title': 'Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med.', 'key': '43764_CR16', 'unstructured': 'Rocha, B. A. et al. Evaluation of a propolis water extract using a ' 'reliable RP-HPLC methodology and in vitro and in vivo efficacy and ' 'safety characterisation. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013, ' '670451. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/670451 (2013).', 'volume': '2013', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12882-019-1337-7', 'author': 'MAD Silveira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '140', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'BMC Nephrol.', 'key': '43764_CR17', 'unstructured': 'Silveira, M. A. D. et al. Effects of Brazilian green propolis on ' 'proteinuria and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: ' 'A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Nephrol. ' '20(1), 140. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1337-7 (2019).', 'volume': '20', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jep.2019.112174', 'author': 'DAC Cusinato', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '112174', 'journal-title': 'J. Ethnopharmacol.', 'key': '43764_CR18', 'unstructured': 'Cusinato, D. A. C. et al. Evaluation of potential herbal-drug ' 'interactions of a standardized propolis extract (EPP-AF®) using an in ' 'vivo cocktail approach. J. Ethnopharmacol. 245, 112174. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112174 (2019).', 'volume': '245', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101609', 'author': 'A Miethke-Morais', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101609', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Braz. J. Infect. Dis.', 'key': '43764_CR19', 'unstructured': 'Miethke-Morais, A. et al. COVID-19-related hospital cost-outcome ' 'analysis: The impact of clinical and demographic factors. Braz. J. ' 'Infect. Dis. 25(4), 101609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101609 ' '(2021).', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70081-1', 'author': 'WG Melsen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '665', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect. Dis.', 'key': '43764_CR20', 'unstructured': 'Melsen, W. G. Attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia: ' 'A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised prevention ' 'studies. Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(8), 665–671. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70081-1 (2013).', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009', 'author': 'EJ Giamarellos-Bourboulis', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '992', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Cell Host. Microbe.', 'key': '43764_CR21', 'unstructured': 'Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E. J. et al. Complex immune dysregulation in ' 'COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. Cell Host. Microbe. ' '27(6), 992-1000.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009 (2020).', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12879-022-07192-x', 'author': 'A De Bruyn', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '207', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'BMC Infect Dis.', 'key': '43764_CR22', 'unstructured': 'De Bruyn, A. et al. Secondary infection in COVID-19 critically ill ' 'patients: A retrospective single-center evaluation. BMC Infect Dis. ' '22(1), 207. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07192-x (2022).', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jhin.2022.04.007', 'author': 'B Minihan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '29', 'journal-title': 'J Hosp Infect.', 'key': '43764_CR23', 'unstructured': 'Minihan, B. et al. Association between tocilizumab treatment of ' 'hyperinflammatory patients with COVID-19 in a critical care setting and ' 'elevated incidence of hospital-acquired bacterial and invasive fungal ' 'infections. J Hosp Infect. 126, 29–36. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2022.04.007 (2022).', 'volume': '126', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-021-03672-9', 'author': 'G Grasselli', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '317', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Crit. Care.', 'key': '43764_CR24', 'unstructured': 'Grasselli, G., Cattaneo, E. & Florio, G. Secondary infections in ' 'critically ill patients with COVID-19. Crit. Care. 25(1), 317. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03672-9 (2021).', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.7759/cureus.22363', 'author': 'I Bahceci', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e22363', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Cureus', 'key': '43764_CR25', 'unstructured': 'Bahceci, I. et al. Secondary bacterial infection rates among patients ' 'With COVID-19. Cureus 14(2), e22363. ' 'https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22363 (2022).', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2022/1035475', 'author': 'MA Duarte Silveira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1035475', 'journal-title': 'Int. J. Nephrol.', 'key': '43764_CR26', 'unstructured': 'Duarte Silveira, M. A. et al. Effects of standardized Brazilian green ' 'propolis extract (EPP-AF®) on inflammation in haemodialysis patients: A ' 'clinical trial. Int. J. Nephrol. 2022, 1035475. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1035475 (2022).', 'volume': '2022', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.5501/wjv.v11.i5.283', 'author': 'GM Nogueira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '283', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'World J. Virol.', 'key': '43764_CR27', 'unstructured': 'Nogueira, G. M., Silva, N. L. O. R., Moura, A. F., Duarte Silveira, M. ' 'A. & Moura-Neto, J. A. Acute kidney injury and electrolyte disorders in ' 'COVID-19. World J. Virol. 11(5), 283–292. ' 'https://doi.org/10.5501/wjv.v11.i5.283 (2022).', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/rmv.2176', 'author': 'E Ahmadian', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e2176', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Rev. Med. Virol.', 'key': '43764_CR28', 'unstructured': 'Ahmadian, E. et al. Covid-19 and kidney injury: Pathophysiology and ' 'molecular mechanisms. Rev. Med. Virol. 31(3), e2176. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2176 (2021).', 'volume': '31', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fphar.2022.692828', 'author': 'B Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '692828', 'journal-title': 'Front. Pharmacol.', 'key': '43764_CR29', 'unstructured': 'Wu, B. et al. Acute kidney injury associated with remdesivir: A ' 'comprehensive pharmacovigilance analysis of COVID-19 reports in FAERS. ' 'Front. Pharmacol. 13, 692828. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.692828 ' '(2022).', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-021-85124-6', 'author': 'MAD Silveira', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5925', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Sci. Rep.', 'key': '43764_CR30', 'unstructured': 'Silveira, M. A. D. et al. Green propolis extract attenuates acute kidney ' 'injury and lung injury in a rat model of sepsis. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 5925. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85124-6 (2021).', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1177/00045632211020029', 'author': 'L Bojko', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '474', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Ann. Clin. Biochem.', 'key': '43764_CR31', 'unstructured': 'Bojko, L. et al. Drug dosing using estimated glomerular filtration rate: ' 'Misclassification due to metamizole interference in a creatinine assay. ' 'Ann. Clin. Biochem. 58(5), 474–480. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1177/00045632211020029 (2021).', 'volume': '58', 'year': '2021'}], 'reference-count': 31, 'references-count': 31, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-023-43764-w'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Multidisciplinary'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Standardized Brazilian green propolis extract (EPP-AF®) in COVID-19 outcomes: a randomized ' 'double-blind placebo-controlled trial', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'volume': '13'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit