Intranasal antisepsis to reduce influenza virus transmission in an animal model
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, doi:10.1111/irv.13035
Background: Seasonal influenza annually causes significant morbidity and mortality, and unpredictable respiratory virus zoonoses, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, can threaten the health and lives of millions more. Molecular iodine (I 2 ) is a broad-spectrum, pathogen-nonspecific antiseptic agent that has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacteria, virus, and fungi. Methods: We investigated a commercially available antiseptic, a non-irritating formulation of iodine (5% povidone-iodine) with a film-forming agent that extends the duration of the iodine's antimicrobial activity, for its ability to prevent influenza virus transmission between infected and susceptible animals in the guinea pig model of influenza virus transmission.
Results: We observed that a once-daily topical application of this long-lasting antiseptic to the nares of either the infected virus-donor guinea pig or the susceptible virus-recipient guinea pig, or to the nares of both animals, prior to virus inoculation effectively reduced transmission of a highly transmissible influenza A virus, even when the donor and recipient guinea pigs shared the same cage. Daily treatment of the recipient guinea pig starting 1 day after initial exposure to an infected donor guinea pig in the same cage was similarly effective in preventing detectable influenza virus infection in the recipient animal.
Conclusions: We conclude that a daily application of this antiseptic formulation is efficacious in reducing the transmission of influenza A virus in the guinea pig model, and further study in this and other preclinical models is warranted.
PEER REVIEW The peer review history for this article is available at https://publons. com/publon/10.1111/irv.13035.
SUPPORTING INFORMATION Additional supporting information can be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of this article.
Ai, Zheng, Chu, Zhang, Effects of Xingbi gel on leukotriene E4 and immunoglobulin E production and nasal eosinophilia in a guinea pig model for allergic rhinitis, Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol
Anderson, David, Scholz, Efficacy of skin and nasal povidone-iodine preparation against mupirocin-resistant methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus within the anterior nares, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Beamish, Iodine in the prophylaxis of influenza, BMJ Military Health
Bidra, Pelletier, Westover, Frank, Brown et al., Rapid in-vitro inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using povidone-iodine oral antiseptic rinse, J Prosthodont, doi:info:doi/10.1111/jopr.13209
Bouvier, Lowen, Palese, Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses are transmitted efficiently among guinea pigs by direct contact but not by aerosol, J Virol, doi:info:doi/10.1128/JVI.01226-08
Bundgaard, Bundgaard, Raaschou-Pedersen, Effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in Danish mask wearers, Ann Intern Med, doi:info:doi/10.7326/M20-6817
Cdc, Burden of influenza
Changani, Hotee, Campbell, Effect of the TRPV1 antagonist SB-705498 on the nasal parasympathetic reflex response in the ovalbumin sensitized guinea pig, Br J Pharmacol, doi:info:doi/10.1111/bph.12145
Core, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, Version 3.6.2
De Araujo, Guariza-Filho, Gonçalves, Front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic: what is the effectiveness of using personal protective equipment in health service environments?-A systematic review, Int Arch Occup Environ Health October, doi:info:doi/10.1007/s00420-021-01775-y
Eggers, Koburger-Janssen, Eickmann, Zorn, In vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine gargle/mouthwash against respiratory and oral tract pathogens, Infect Dis Ther, doi:info:doi/10.1007/s40121-018-0200-7
Gottardi, The uptake and release of molecular iodine by the skin: chemical and bactericidal evidence of residual effects caused by povidone-iodine preparations, J Hosp Infect, doi:info:doi/10.1016/0195-6701(95)90289-9
Huang, Wood, Jelley, Impact of the COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions on influenza and other respiratory viral infections in New Zealand, Nat Commun, doi:info:doi/10.1038/s41467-021-21157-9
Koburger, Hübner, Braun, Siebert, Kramer, Standardized comparison of antiseptic efficacy of triclosan, PVP-iodine, octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide and chlorhexidine digluconate, J Antimicrob Chemother, doi:info:doi/10.1093/jac/dkq212
Lepelletier, Maillard, Pozzetto, Simon, Povidone iodine: properties, mechanisms of action, and role in infection control and Staphylococcus aureus decolonization, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, doi:info:doi/10.1128/AAC.00682-20
Lowen, Bouvier, Steel, Transmission in the guinea pig model
Matrosovich, Matrosovich, Carr, Roberts, Klenk, Overexpression of the α-2,6-sialyltransferase in MDCK cells increases influenza virus sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors, J Virol, doi:info:doi/10.1128/JVI.77.15.8418-8425.2003
Menon, The 1957 pandemic of influenza in India, Bull World Health Organ
Morey, BayesFactor: computation of Bayes factors for common designs
Morey, Odds and probabilities using BayesFactor
Murray, A Dissertation on the Influence of Heat and Humidity: With Practical Observations on the Inhalation of Iodine, and Various Vapours
Phillips, Rosenberg, Shopsin, Preventing surgical site infections: a randomized, open-label trial of nasal mupirocin ointment and nasal povidone iodine solution, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, doi:info:doi/10.1086/676872
Rowe, Meliopoulos, Iverson, Bomme, Schultz-Cherry et al., Direct interactions with influenza promote bacterial adherence during respiratory infections, Nat Microbiol, doi:info:doi/10.1038/s41564-019-0447-0
Sriwilaijaroen, Wilairat, Hiramatsu, Mechanisms of the action of povidone-iodine against human and avian influenza A viruses: its effects on hemagglutination and sialidase activities, Virol J, doi:info:doi/10.1186/1743-422X-6-124
Stone, Burnet, The action of halogens on influenza virus with special reference to the action of iodine vapour on virus mists, Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci, doi:info:doi/10.1038/icb.1945.32
Sun, Tang, Yao, Establishment of a new animal model of allergic rhinitis with biphasic sneezing by intranasal sensitization with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Exp Ther Med, doi:info:doi/10.3892/etm.2015.2506
Team, RStudio: Integrated Development for R, Version
Torres, Lindmair-Snell, Langan, Burnikel, Is preoperative nasal povidone-iodine as efficient and cost-effective as standard methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening protocol in Total joint arthroplasty?, J Arthroplasty, doi:info:doi/10.1016/j.arth.2015.09.030
Yang, Shaff, Shaman, Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19: a case study of the 2020 spring pandemic wave in New York City, J R Soc Interf, doi:info:doi/10.1098/rsif.2020.0822
Young, Yap, Vargas, Strey, Hao et al., National prevalence of influenza diagnoses and vaccination rates among patients presenting to United States physician offices and hospital outpatient departments, 2009 to 2016, Open Forum Infect Dis