Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 59% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Efe Iris et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in Turkey Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) Efe Iris et al., Jundishapur J. Microb.., Dec 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Deficiency and Receptor Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for COVID-19

Efe Iris et al., Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, doi:10.5812/jjm-140726
Dec 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 118 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective study of 100 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients and 100 preoperative COVID-19 negative controls in Turkey, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19. There was no significant association found for VDR gene Fok1 or Taq1 polymorphisms.
This is the 190th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of case, 59.2% lower, OR 0.41, p < 0.001, cutoff 18.4ng/mL, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥18.4ng/mL), RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Efe Iris et al., 30 Dec 2023, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, mean age 46.9, 8 authors. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Deficiency and Receptor Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for COVID-19
Nur Efe Iris, Ozlem Akman, Demet Akin, Palmet Gun Atak, Ahmed Cihad Genc, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Gunnur Demircan
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, doi:10.5812/jjm-140726
Background: Early immune responses to COVID-19 can help eliminate the virus; therefore, strategies to improve the immune system have become important in disease prevention. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 by increasing the expression of the vitamin D receptor. Objectives: This study investigated the impact of vitamin D deficiency, Fok 1, and Taq 1 Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and comorbidities on the susceptibility to COVID-19. Methods: Fok1 and Taq1 polymorphisms were analyzed using the RT-PCR method, and vitamin D levels were measured using the chemiluminescence method. A total of 200 patients, 100 with COVID-19 and 100 without, provided blood samples for analysis. Results: The COVID-19 positive group had a significantly lower mean vitamin D level of 16.2 ± 11.3 ng/mL compared to the COVID-19 negative control group, 26.7 ± 15.9 ng/mL (P < 0.001). Individuals with a vitamin D level below 18.4 ng/mL had a 2.448 times higher risk of COVID-19 positivity (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the Fok1 and Taq1 gene polymorphisms between the two groups. (P = 0.548 and P = 0.098). The COVID-19 positive group had a significantly higher number of comorbid diseases with 40 (40%) compared to the negative group with 10 (10%) participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Levels of vitamin D above the cut-off value of 18.4 ng/mL were found to protect against COVID-19, while the presence of comorbid diseases was identified as a risk factor. However, no association was observed between the Fok1 and Taq1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to COVID-19.
Conflict of Interests: The authors assert that there are no conflicts of interest. Data Reproducibility: It was not declared by the authors. Ethical Approval: This study has been approved under the ethical approval code 04.08.2020/2020-14-02 Demiro glu Bilim University Ethical Committee. Funding/Support: Researchers supported the study with their own budget. Informed Consent: Informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Abdollahi, Sarvestani, Rafat, Ghaderkhani, Mahmoudi-Aliabadi et al., The association between the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D, obesity, and underlying diseases with the risk of developing COVID-19 infection: A case-control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726
Abdollahzadeh, Shushizadeh, Barazandehrokh, Choopani, Azarnezhad et al., Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients, Infect Genet Evol, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098
Adab, Haroon, Hara, Jordan, Comorbidities and covid-19, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.o1431
Akbar, Wibowo, Pranata, Setiabudiawan, Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) level is associated with susceptibility to COVID-19, severity, and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Front Nutr, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Shah, Kandiah et al., Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19, Postgrad Med J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712
Basaran, Adas, Gokden, Turgut, Yildirmak et al., The relationship between vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19, Bratisl Lek Listy, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_034
Bassatne, Basbous, Chakhtoura, El Zein, Rahme et al., The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): A systematic review and meta-analysis, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753
Batur, Correlation of the variations in prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in cohorts from 26 countries, Anadolu Klin Tıp Bilim Derg, doi:10.21673/anadoluklin.987578
Berry, Hesketh, Power, Hypponen, Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114511001991
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, Nicolo et al., 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12051359
Ejaz, Alsrhani, Zafar, Javed, Junaid et al., COVID-19 and comorbidities: Deleterious impact on infected patients, J Infect Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014
Gombart, Pierre, Maggini, A review of micronutrients and the immune system-working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12010236
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Holick, The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, Rev Endocr Metab Disord, doi:10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8
Jeffery, Burke, Mura, Zheng, Qureshi et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3, J Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803217
Laplana, Royo, Fibla, Vitamin D Receptor polymorphisms and risk of enveloped virus infection: A meta-analysis, Gene, doi:10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.017
Mccartney, Byrne, Optimisation of vitamin D status for enhanced immuno-protection against covid-19, Ir Med J
Murdaca, Pioggia, Negrini, Vitamin D and covid-19: an update on evidence and potential therapeutic implications, Clin Mol Allergy, doi:10.1186/s12948-020-00139-0
Ou, Jiang, Guan, Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of atopic dermatitis in chinese han population, Int J Gen Med, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S326477
Peralta, Rosales, Mesa, González, Pérez et al., TaqI polymorphism of the VDR gene: aspects related to the clinical behavior of COVID-19 in Cuban patients, Egypt J Med Hum Genet, doi:10.1186/s43042-021-00206-4
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092757
Rai, Abdo, Agrawal, Agrawal, Vitamin D receptor polymorphism and cancer: An update, Anticancer Res, doi:10.21873/anticanres.11784
Raisi-Estabragh, Mccracken, Bethell, Cooper, Cooper et al., Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank, J Public Health (Oxf), doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa095
Santos, Mascarenhas, Satler, Boguszewski, Spritzer, Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants, BMC Pediatr, doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-62
Sharifi, Vahedi, Nedjat, Rafiei, Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Effect of single-dose injection of vitamin D on immune cytokines in ulcerative colitis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial, APMIS, doi:10.1111/apm.12982
Ulucan, Akyuz, Ozbay, Pekiner, Guney, Evaluation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI and ApaI) in a family with dentinogenesis imperfecta, Tsitol Genet
Ye, Tang, Liao, Shaw, Deng et al., Does serum vitamin D level affect COVID-19 infection and its severity?-A case-control study, J Am Coll Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1826005
Zeidan, Lateef, Selim, Razek, Abd-Elrehim et al., Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19, Pediatr Res, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop