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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin D Deficiency and Receptor Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for COVID-19

Efe Iris et al., Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, doi:10.5812/jjm-140726
Dec 2023  
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Case 59% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Efe Iris et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in Turkey Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) c19early.org Efe Iris et al., Jundishapur J. Microb.., Dec 2023 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective study of 100 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients and 100 preoperative COVID-19 negative controls in Turkey, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19. There was no significant association found for VDR gene Fok1 or Taq1 polymorphisms.
This is the 191st of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
risk of case, 59.2% lower, OR 0.41, p < 0.001, cutoff 18.4ng/mL, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥18.4ng/mL), RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Efe Iris et al., 30 Dec 2023, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, mean age 46.9, 8 authors. Contact: nurefeiris@yahoo.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Deficiency and Receptor Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for COVID-19
Nur Efe Iris, Ozlem Akman, Demet Akin, Palmet Gun Atak, Ahmed Cihad Genc, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Gunnur Demircan
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, doi:10.5812/jjm-140726
Background: Early immune responses to COVID-19 can help eliminate the virus; therefore, strategies to improve the immune system have become important in disease prevention. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 by increasing the expression of the vitamin D receptor. Objectives: This study investigated the impact of vitamin D deficiency, Fok 1, and Taq 1 Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and comorbidities on the susceptibility to COVID-19. Methods: Fok1 and Taq1 polymorphisms were analyzed using the RT-PCR method, and vitamin D levels were measured using the chemiluminescence method. A total of 200 patients, 100 with COVID-19 and 100 without, provided blood samples for analysis. Results: The COVID-19 positive group had a significantly lower mean vitamin D level of 16.2 ± 11.3 ng/mL compared to the COVID-19 negative control group, 26.7 ± 15.9 ng/mL (P < 0.001). Individuals with a vitamin D level below 18.4 ng/mL had a 2.448 times higher risk of COVID-19 positivity (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the Fok1 and Taq1 gene polymorphisms between the two groups. (P = 0.548 and P = 0.098). The COVID-19 positive group had a significantly higher number of comorbid diseases with 40 (40%) compared to the negative group with 10 (10%) participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Levels of vitamin D above the cut-off value of 18.4 ng/mL were found to protect against COVID-19, while the presence of comorbid diseases was identified as a risk factor. However, no association was observed between the Fok1 and Taq1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to COVID-19.
Conflict of Interests: The authors assert that there are no conflicts of interest. Data Reproducibility: It was not declared by the authors. Ethical Approval: This study has been approved under the ethical approval code 04.08.2020/2020-14-02 Demiro glu Bilim University Ethical Committee. Funding/Support: Researchers supported the study with their own budget. Informed Consent: Informed consent was obtained from all participants.
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