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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 62% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Zeidan et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study in Egypt Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.002) Zeidan et al., Pediatric Research, Sep 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19

Zeidan et al., Pediatric Research, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6
Sep 2022  
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Prospective study of 180 moderate to critical hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 200 matched controls, showing vitamin D deficiency and the VDR Fok I polymorphism associated with COVID-19 hospitalization.
This is the 144th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of hospitalization, 61.5% lower, OR 0.38, p = 0.002, cutoff 20ng/mL, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), case control OR, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Zeidan et al., 9 Sep 2022, prospective, Egypt, peer-reviewed, median age 11.4, 38 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19
Nancy M S Zeidan, Hanan M Abd El Lateef, Dalia M Selim, Suzan A Razek, Ghada A B Abd-Elrehim, Mohamed Nashat, Noha Elgyar, Nevin M Waked, Attia A Soliman, Ahmed A Elhewala, Mohamed M M Shehab, Ahmed A A Ibraheem, Hassan Shehata, Yousif M Yousif, Nagwa E Akeel, Mustafa I A Hashem, Amani A Ahmed, Ahmed A Emam, Mohamed M Abdelmohsen, Mohamed F Ahmed, Ahmed S E Saleh, Heba H Eltrawy, Gehan H Shahin, Rehab M Nabil, Thoraya A Hosny, Mohamed R Abdelhamed, Mona R Afify, Mohanned T Alharbi, Mohammed K Nagshabandi, Muyassar K Tarabulsi, Sherif F Osman, Amal S M Abd-Elrazek, Manal M Rashad, Sonya A A El-Gaaly, Said A B Gad, Mohamed Y Mohamed, Khalil Abdelkhalek, Aly A Yousef
Pediatric Research, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6
BACKGROUND: Given the sparse data on vitamin D status in pediatric COVID-19, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. We also investigated whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism could be a genetic marker for COVID-19 susceptibility. METHODS: One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed to have COVID-19 and 200 matched control children and adolescents were recruited. Patients were laboratory confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive by real-time RT-PCR. All participants were genotyped for VDR Fok1 polymorphism by RT-PCR. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficient for serum 25(OH) D at least 30 ng/mL, insufficient at 21-29 ng/mL, deficient at <20 ng/mL. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (52%) had low vitamin D levels with 74 (41%) being deficient and 20 (11%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk for COVID-19 (OR = 2.6; [95% CI 1.96-4.9]; P = 0.002. The FokI FF genotype was significantly more represented in patients compared to control group (OR = 4.05; [95% CI: 1.95-8.55]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency and VDR Fok I polymorphism may constitute independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. COMPETING INTERESTS The authors declare no competing interests. ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE Written informed consents were provided by parents or legal guardians for all participants. The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to Ahmed A. Emam. Reprints and permission information is available at Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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