Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 62% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Zeidan et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study in Egypt Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.002) c19early.org Zeidan et al., Pediatric Research, Sep 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19

Zeidan et al., Pediatric Research, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6
Sep 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of 180 moderate to critical hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 200 matched controls, showing vitamin D deficiency and the VDR Fok I polymorphism associated with COVID-19 hospitalization.
This is the 145th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of hospitalization, 61.5% lower, OR 0.38, p = 0.002, cutoff 20ng/mL, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), case control OR, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Zeidan et al., 9 Sep 2022, prospective, Egypt, peer-reviewed, median age 11.4, 38 authors. Contact: ahmedemam1111@yahoo.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19
Nancy M S Zeidan, Hanan M Abd El Lateef, Dalia M Selim, Suzan A Razek, Ghada A B Abd-Elrehim, Mohamed Nashat, Noha Elgyar, Nevin M Waked, Attia A Soliman, Ahmed A Elhewala, Mohamed M M Shehab, Ahmed A A Ibraheem, Hassan Shehata, Yousif M Yousif, Nagwa E Akeel, Mustafa I A Hashem, Amani A Ahmed, Ahmed A Emam, Mohamed M Abdelmohsen, Mohamed F Ahmed, Ahmed S E Saleh, Heba H Eltrawy, Gehan H Shahin, Rehab M Nabil, Thoraya A Hosny, Mohamed R Abdelhamed, Mona R Afify, Mohanned T Alharbi, Mohammed K Nagshabandi, Muyassar K Tarabulsi, Sherif F Osman, Amal S M Abd-Elrazek, Manal M Rashad, Sonya A A El-Gaaly, Said A B Gad, Mohamed Y Mohamed, Khalil Abdelkhalek, Aly A Yousef
Pediatric Research, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6
BACKGROUND: Given the sparse data on vitamin D status in pediatric COVID-19, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. We also investigated whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism could be a genetic marker for COVID-19 susceptibility. METHODS: One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed to have COVID-19 and 200 matched control children and adolescents were recruited. Patients were laboratory confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive by real-time RT-PCR. All participants were genotyped for VDR Fok1 polymorphism by RT-PCR. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficient for serum 25(OH) D at least 30 ng/mL, insufficient at 21-29 ng/mL, deficient at <20 ng/mL. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (52%) had low vitamin D levels with 74 (41%) being deficient and 20 (11%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk for COVID-19 (OR = 2.6; [95% CI 1.96-4.9]; P = 0.002. The FokI FF genotype was significantly more represented in patients compared to control group (OR = 4.05; [95% CI: 1.95-8.55]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency and VDR Fok I polymorphism may constitute independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. COMPETING INTERESTS The authors declare no competing interests. ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE Written informed consents were provided by parents or legal guardians for all participants. The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to Ahmed A. Emam. Reprints and permission information is available at http://www.nature.com/reprints Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
References
Abdollahzadeh, Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients, Infect. Genet. Evol
Abouzeid, Association of vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism and susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children: a multicenter study, Pediatr. Res
Akoğlu, Evaluation of childhood COVID-19 cases: a retrospective analysis, J. Pediatr. Infect. Dis
Alpcan, Tursun, Kandur, Vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19: a report from Turkey, Epidemiol. Infect
Apaydin, Effects of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on the prognosis of COVID-19, Clin. Endocrinol
Beyazgül, How vitamin D levels of children changed during COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, J. Clin. Res. Pediatr. Endocrinol
Carpagnano, Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, J. Endocrinol. Investig
Chen, Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus, World J. Pediatr
Chiodini, Vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 clinical outcomes, Front Public Health
Dancer, Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Thorax
Daneshkhah, Evidence for possible association of vitamin D status with cytokine storm and unregulated inflammation in COVID-19 patients, Aging Clin. Exp. Res
Darren, Vitamin D status of children with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS), Br. J. Nutr
De Souza, Nadal, Nogueira, Pereira, Brandão, Clinical manifestations of children with COVID-19: a systematic review, Pediatr. Pulmonol
El Basha, Mohsen, Kamal, Mehaney, Association of vitamin D deficiency with severe pneumonia in hospitalized children under 5 years, Comp. Clin. Pathol
Fedirko, Pre-diagnostic 25-hydroxyvitamin D, VDR and CASR polymorphisms and survival in patients with colorectal cancer in Western European Populations, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev
Freire-Paspuel, Analytical and clinical comparison of Viasure (CerTest Biotec) and 2019-nCoV CDC (IDT) RT-qPCR kits for SARS-CoV2 diagnosis, Virology
Grant, Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Greiller, Martineau, Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D, Nutrients
Guan, Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N. Engl. J. Med
Han, Association of vitamin D receptor polymorphism with susceptibility to symptomatic pertussis, PLoS ONE
Hoffmann, SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor, Cell
Holick, The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord
Huang, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Jurutka, The polymorphic N terminus in human vitamin D receptor isoforms influences transcriptional activity by modulating interaction with transcription factor IIB, Mol. Endocrinol
Kong, VDR attenuates acute lung injury by blocking Ang-2-Tie-2 pathway and renin-angiotensin system, Mol. Endocrinol
Kresfelder, Janssen, Bont, Pretorius, Venter, Confirmation of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene with respiratory syncytial virus related disease in South African children, J. Med. Virol
Li, Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and pulmonary infection in children, Medicine
Li, Li, Zhang, Liu, Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1
Li, Polymorphism rs2239185 in vitamin D receptor gene is associated with severe community-acquired pneumonia of children in Chinese Han population: a case-control study, Eur. J. Pediatr
Long, Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections, Nat. Med
Martineau, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Mcnally, Vitamin D deficiency in young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection, Pediatr. Pulmonol
Merzon, Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS J
Neill, Vitamin D receptor gene expression and function in a South African population: ethnicity, vitamin D and FokI, PLoS ONE
Overbergh, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces an autoantigenspecific T-helper 1/T-helper 2 immune shift in NOD mice immunized with GAD65 (p524-543), Diabetes
Pike, Meyer, The vitamin D receptor: new paradigms for the regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am
Pinzon, Pradana, Vitamin D deficiency among patients with COVID-19: case series and recent literature review, Trop. Med. Health
Shafiek, Cytokine profile in Egyptian children and adolescents with COVID-19 pneumonia: a multicenter study, Pediatr. Pulmonol
Underwood, Bevins, Defensin-barbed innate immunity: clinical associations in the pediatric population, Pediatrics
Van Etten, The vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism: functional impact on the immune system, Eur. J. Immunol
Wang, Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA
Wang, Xi, Reilly, Liu, Fu, Quantitative assessment of the associations between four polymorphisms (FokI, ApaI, BsmI, TaqI) of vitamin D receptor gene and risk of diabetes mellitus, Mol. Biol. Rep
Yuan, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses renin gene transcription by blocking the activity of the cyclic AMP response element in the renin gene promoter, J. Biol. Chem
Yılmaz, Şen, Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID-19 in children?, Pediatr. Pulmonol
{ 'DOI': '10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6', 'ISSN': ['0031-3998', '1530-0447'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6', 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Background</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Given the sparse data on vitamin D status in pediatric COVID-19, we ' 'investigated whether vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor for susceptibility to ' 'COVID-19 in Egyptian children and adolescents. We also investigated whether vitamin D ' 'receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism could be a genetic marker for COVID-19 ' 'susceptibility.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed to have COVID‐19 and 200 ' 'matched control children and adolescents were recruited. Patients were laboratory confirmed ' 'as SARS-CoV-2 positive by real-time RT-PCR. All participants were genotyped for VDR Fok1 ' 'polymorphism by RT-PCR. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficient for serum 25(OH) D at ' 'least 30\u2009ng/mL, insufficient at 21–29\u2009ng/mL, deficient at &lt;20\u2009' 'ng/mL.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Ninety-four patients (52%) had low vitamin D levels with 74 (41%) being ' 'deficient and 20 (11%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with ' '2.6-fold increased risk for COVID-19 (OR\u2009=\u20092.6; [95% CI 1.96–4.9]; ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.002. The FokI FF genotype was significantly more ' 'represented in patients compared to control group (OR\u2009=\u20094.05; [95% CI: 1.95–8.55]; ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\u2009&lt;\u20090.001).</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Vitamin D deficiency and VDR Fok I polymorphism may constitute ' 'independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in Egyptian children and ' 'adolescents.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Impact</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p><jats:list list-type="bullet">\n' ' <jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:p>Vitamin D deficiency could be a modifiable risk factor for COVID-19 ' 'in children and adolescents because of its immune-modulatory action.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:p>To our knowledge, ours is the first such study to investigate the ' 'VDR <jats:italic>Fok</jats:italic> I polymorphism in Caucasian children and adolescents with ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:p>Vitamin D deficiency and the VDR <jats:italic>Fok</jats:italic> I ' 'polymorphism may constitute independent risk factors for susceptibility to COVID-19 in ' 'Egyptian children and adolescents.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:list-item>\n' ' <jats:p>Clinical trials should be urgently conducted to test for causality ' 'and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for prophylaxis and treatment of ' 'COVID-19 taking into account the VDR polymorphisms.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:list-item>\n' ' </jats:list></jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'alternative-id': ['2275'], 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 1, 'value': '11 June 2022'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Revised', 'name': 'revised', 'order': 2, 'value': '22 July 2022'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 3, 'value': '5 August 2022'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'First Online', 'name': 'first_online', 'order': 4, 'value': '9 September 2022'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Competing interests', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 1, 'value': 'The authors declare no competing interests.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Ethics approval and consent to participate', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 2, 'value': 'Written informed consents were provided by parents or legal guardians for all ' 'participants. The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of ' 'Helsinki.'}], 'author': [ {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zeidan', 'given': 'Nancy M. S.', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lateef', 'given': 'Hanan M. Abd El', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Selim', 'given': 'Dalia M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Razek', 'given': 'Suzan A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Abd-Elrehim', 'given': 'Ghada A. B.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Nashat', 'given': 'Mohamed', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'ElGyar', 'given': 'Noha', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Waked', 'given': 'Nevin M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Soliman', 'given': 'Attia A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Elhewala', 'given': 'Ahmed A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Shehab', 'given': 'Mohamed M. M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ibraheem', 'given': 'Ahmed A. A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Shehata', 'given': 'Hassan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yousif', 'given': 'Yousif M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Akeel', 'given': 'Nagwa E.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hashem', 'given': 'Mustafa I. A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ahmed', 'given': 'Amani A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Emam', 'given': 'Ahmed A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Abdelmohsen', 'given': 'Mohamed M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ahmed', 'given': 'Mohamed F.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Saleh', 'given': 'Ahmed S. E.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Eltrawy', 'given': 'Heba H.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Shahin', 'given': 'Gehan H.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Nabil', 'given': 'Rehab M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hosny', 'given': 'Thoraya A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Abdelhamed', 'given': 'Mohamed R.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Afify', 'given': 'Mona R.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Alharbi', 'given': 'Mohanned T.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Nagshabandi', 'given': 'Mohammed K.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Tarabulsi', 'given': 'Muyassar K.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Osman', 'given': 'Sherif F.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Abd-Elrazek', 'given': 'Amal S. M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Rashad', 'given': 'Manal M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'El-Gaaly', 'given': 'Sonya A. A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gad', 'given': 'Said A. B.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Mohamed', 'given': 'Mohamed Y.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Abdelkhalek', 'given': 'Khalil', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yousef', 'given': 'Aly A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Pediatric Research', 'container-title-short': 'Pediatr Res', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': ['link.springer.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-09-09T09:23:48Z', 'timestamp': 1662715428000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-09-09T11:24:39Z', 'timestamp': 1662722679000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-09-09T11:45:34Z', 'timestamp': 1662723934237}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-09-09T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1662681600000}}, { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-09-09T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1662681600000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-022-02275-6.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-022-02275-6', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-022-02275-6.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '297', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1038', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 9]]}, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'reference': [ { 'key': '2275_CR1', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. ' 'https://covid19.who.int (2022).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5', 'author': 'C Huang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '497', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '2275_CR2', 'unstructured': 'Huang, C. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 395, 497–506 (2020).', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052', 'author': 'M Hoffmann', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '271.e8', 'journal-title': 'Cell', 'key': '2275_CR3', 'unstructured': 'Hoffmann, M. et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 ' 'and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 181, ' '271.e8–280.e8 (2020).', 'volume': '181', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2002032', 'author': 'WJ Guan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1708', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.', 'key': '2275_CR4', 'unstructured': 'Guan, W. J. et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 ' 'in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 1708–1720 (2020).', 'volume': '382', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.1585', 'author': 'D Wang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1061', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '2275_CR5', 'unstructured': 'Wang, D. et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients ' 'with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA ' '323, 1061–1069 (2020).', 'volume': '323', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ecl.2010.02.007', 'author': 'JW Pike', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '255', 'journal-title': 'Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.', 'key': '2275_CR6', 'unstructured': 'Pike, J. W. & Meyer, M. B. The vitamin D receptor: new paradigms for the ' 'regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Endocrinol. ' 'Metab. Clin. North Am. 39, 255–269 (2010).', 'volume': '39', 'year': '2010'}, { 'key': '2275_CR7', 'unstructured': 'Martineau, A. R. et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute ' 'respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of ' 'individual participant data. BMJ 356, i6583 (2017).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206680', 'author': 'RC Dancer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '617', 'journal-title': 'Thorax', 'key': '2275_CR8', 'unstructured': 'Dancer, R. C. et al. Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the ' 'acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thorax 70, 617–624 (2015).', 'volume': '70', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1542/peds.2009-3289', 'author': 'MA Underwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1237', 'journal-title': 'Pediatrics', 'key': '2275_CR9', 'unstructured': 'Underwood, M. A. & Bevins, C. L. Defensin-barbed innate immunity: ' 'clinical associations in the pediatric population. Pediatrics 125, ' '1237–1247 (2010).', 'volume': '125', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41591-020-0897-1', 'author': 'QX Long', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '845', 'journal-title': 'Nat. Med.', 'key': '2275_CR10', 'unstructured': 'Long, Q. X. et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic ' 'SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat. Med. 26, 845–848 (2020).', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12040988', 'author': 'WB Grant', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '988', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '2275_CR11', 'unstructured': 'Grant, W. B. et al. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce ' 'risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients 12, 988 ' '(2020).', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2275_CR12', 'unstructured': 'Li, Y., Li, Q., Zhang, N. & Liu, Z. Sunlight and vitamin D in the ' 'prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in ' 'the United States. Preprint at https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1 ' '(2020).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01677-y', 'author': 'A Daneshkhah', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2141', 'journal-title': 'Aging Clin. Exp. Res.', 'key': '2275_CR13', 'unstructured': 'Daneshkhah, A. et al. Evidence for possible association of vitamin D ' 'status with cytokine storm and unregulated inflammation in COVID-19 ' 'patients. Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 32, 2141–2158 (2020).', 'volume': '32', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11033-012-1805-7', 'author': 'Q Wang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '9405', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Biol. Rep.', 'key': '2275_CR14', 'unstructured': 'Wang, Q., Xi, B., Reilly, K. H., Liu, M. & Fu, M. Quantitative ' 'assessment of the associations between four polymorphisms (FokI, ApaI, ' 'BsmI, TaqI) of vitamin D receptor gene and risk of diabetes mellitus. ' 'Mol. Biol. Rep. 39, 9405–9414 (2012).', 'volume': '39', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0067663', 'author': 'O Neill', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e67663', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '2275_CR15', 'unstructured': 'Neill, O. et al. Vitamin D receptor gene expression and function in a ' 'South African population: ethnicity, vitamin D and FokI. PLoS ONE 8, ' 'e67663 (2013).', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/eji.200636043', 'author': 'E van Etten', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '395', 'journal-title': 'Eur. J. Immunol.', 'key': '2275_CR16', 'unstructured': 'van Etten, E. et al. The vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism: ' 'functional impact on the immune system. Eur. J. Immunol. 37, 395–405 ' '(2007).', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ppul.25106', 'author': 'K Yılmaz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3595', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Pulmonol.', 'key': '2275_CR17', 'unstructured': 'Yılmaz, K. & Şen, V. Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID-19 ' 'in children? Pediatr. Pulmonol. 55, 3595–3601 (2020).', 'volume': '55', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S0950268821001825', 'author': 'A Alpcan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'E180', 'journal-title': 'Epidemiol. Infect.', 'key': '2275_CR18', 'unstructured': 'Alpcan, A., Tursun, S. & Kandur, Y. Vitamin D levels in children with ' 'COVID-19: a report from Turkey. Epidemiol. Infect. 149, E180 (2021).', 'volume': '149', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0041-1723957', 'author': 'HA Akoğlu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '091', 'journal-title': 'J. Pediatr. Infect. Dis.', 'key': '2275_CR19', 'unstructured': 'Akoğlu, H. A. et al. Evaluation of childhood COVID-19 cases: a ' 'retrospective analysis. J. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 16, 091–098 (2021).', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s12519-020-00345-5', 'author': 'ZM Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '240', 'journal-title': 'World J. Pediatr.', 'key': '2275_CR20', 'unstructured': 'Chen, Z. M. et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric ' 'respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World J. ' 'Pediatr. 16, 240–246 (2020).', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1', 'author': 'MF Holick', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '153', 'journal-title': 'Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord.', 'key': '2275_CR21', 'unstructured': 'Holick, M. F. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for ' 'diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 18, ' '153–165 (2017).', 'volume': '18', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.virol.2020.10.010', 'author': 'B Freire-Paspuel', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '154', 'journal-title': 'Virology', 'key': '2275_CR22', 'unstructured': 'Freire-Paspuel, B. et al. Analytical and clinical comparison of Viasure ' '(CerTest Biotec) and 2019-nCoV CDC (IDT) RT-qPCR kits for SARS-CoV2 ' 'diagnosis. Virology 553, 154–156 (2021).', 'volume': '553', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-1065', 'author': 'V Fedirko', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '582', 'journal-title': 'Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev.', 'key': '2275_CR23', 'unstructured': 'Fedirko, V. et al. Pre-diagnostic 25-hydroxyvitamin D, VDR and CASR ' 'polymorphisms and survival in patients with colorectal cancer in Western ' 'European Populations. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 21, 582–593 ' '(2012).', 'volume': '21', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/MD.0000000000009060', 'author': 'W Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e9060', 'journal-title': 'Medicine', 'key': '2275_CR24', 'unstructured': 'Li, W. et al. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ' 'concentration and pulmonary infection in children. Medicine 97, e9060 ' '(2018).', 'volume': '97', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ppul.21089', 'author': 'JD McNally', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '981', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Pulmonol.', 'key': '2275_CR25', 'unstructured': 'McNally, J. D. et al. Vitamin D deficiency in young children with severe ' 'acute lower respiratory infection. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 44, 981–988 ' '(2009).', 'volume': '44', 'year': '2009'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00580-013-1770-0', 'author': 'N El Basha', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1247', 'journal-title': 'Comp. Clin. Pathol.', 'key': '2275_CR26', 'unstructured': 'El Basha, N., Mohsen, M., Kamal, M. & Mehaney, D. Association of vitamin ' 'D deficiency with severe pneumonia in hospitalized children under 5 ' 'years. Comp. Clin. Pathol. 23, 1247–1252 (2014).', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fpubh.2021.736665', 'author': 'I Chiodini', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '736665', 'journal-title': 'Front Public Health', 'key': '2275_CR27', 'unstructured': 'Chiodini, I. et al. Vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection and ' 'COVID-19 clinical outcomes. Front Public Health 9, 736665 (2021).', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/febs.15495', 'author': 'E Merzon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3693', 'journal-title': 'FEBS J.', 'key': '2275_CR28', 'unstructured': 'Merzon, E. et al. Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with ' 'increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study. ' 'FEBS J. 287, 3693–3702 (2020).', 'volume': '287', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s41182-020-00277-w', 'author': 'RT Pinzon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '102', 'journal-title': 'Trop. Med. Health', 'key': '2275_CR29', 'unstructured': 'Pinzon, R. T. & Pradana, A. W. Vitamin D deficiency among patients with ' 'COVID-19: case series and recent literature review. Trop. Med. Health ' '48, 102 (2020).', 'volume': '48', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2022.2021-10-6', 'author': 'G Beyazgül', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '188', 'journal-title': 'J. Clin. Res. Pediatr. Endocrinol.', 'key': '2275_CR30', 'unstructured': 'Beyazgül, G. et al. How vitamin D levels of children changed during ' 'COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. J. ' 'Clin. Res. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 14, 188–195 (2022).', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114521001562', 'author': 'A Darren', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '896', 'journal-title': 'Br. J. Nutr.', 'key': '2275_CR31', 'unstructured': 'Darren, A. et al. Vitamin D status of children with paediatric ' 'inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe ' 'acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS). Br. J. Nutr. 127, ' '896–903 (2022).', 'volume': '127', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x', 'author': 'GE Carpagnano', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '765', 'journal-title': 'J. Endocrinol. Investig.', 'key': '2275_CR32', 'unstructured': 'Carpagnano, G. E. et al. Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor ' 'prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19. J. ' 'Endocrinol. Investig. 44, 765–771 (2020).', 'volume': '44', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ppul.24885', 'author': 'TH de Souza', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1892', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Pulmonol.', 'key': '2275_CR33', 'unstructured': 'de Souza, T. H., Nadal, J. A., Nogueira, R. J. N., Pereira, R. M. & ' 'Brandão, M. B. Clinical manifestations of children with COVID-19: a ' 'systematic review. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 55, 1892–1899 (2020).', 'volume': '55', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/me.2013-1146', 'author': 'J Kong', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2116', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Endocrinol.', 'key': '2275_CR34', 'unstructured': 'Kong, J. et al. VDR attenuates acute lung injury by blocking Ang-2-Tie-2 ' 'pathway and renin-angiotensin system. Mol. Endocrinol. 27, 2116–2125 ' '(2013).', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu7064240', 'author': 'CL Greiller', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4240', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '2275_CR35', 'unstructured': 'Greiller, C. L. & Martineau, A. R. Modulation of the immune response to ' 'respiratory viruses by vitamin D. Nutrients 7, 4240–4270 (2015).', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M705495200', 'author': 'W Yuan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '29821', 'journal-title': 'J. Biol. Chem.', 'key': '2275_CR36', 'unstructured': 'Yuan, W. et al. 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses renin gene ' 'transcription by blocking the activity of the cyclic AMP response ' 'element in the renin gene promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 29821–29830 ' '(2007).', 'volume': '282', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.2337/diabetes.49.8.1301', 'author': 'L Overbergh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1301', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes', 'key': '2275_CR37', 'unstructured': 'Overbergh, L. et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces an ' 'autoantigen-specific T-helper 1/T-helper 2 immune shift in NOD mice ' 'immunized with GAD65 (p524-543). Diabetes 49, 1301–1307 (2000).', 'volume': '49', 'year': '2000'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ppul.25679', 'author': 'HK Shafiek', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3924', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Pulmonol.', 'key': '2275_CR38', 'unstructured': 'Shafiek, H. K. et al. Cytokine profile in Egyptian children and ' 'adolescents with COVID-19 pneumonia: a multicenter study. Pediatr. ' 'Pulmonol. 56, 3924–3933 (2021).', 'volume': '56', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.22179', 'author': 'TL Kresfelder', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1834', 'journal-title': 'J. Med. Virol.', 'key': '2275_CR39', 'unstructured': 'Kresfelder, T. L., Janssen, R., Bont, L., Pretorius, M. & Venter, M. ' 'Confirmation of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms ' 'in the VDR gene with respiratory syncytial virus related disease in ' 'South African children. J. Med. Virol. 83, 1834–1840 (2011).', 'volume': '83', 'year': '2011'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0149576', 'author': 'WG Han', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e0149576', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '2275_CR40', 'unstructured': 'Han, W. G. et al. Association of vitamin D receptor polymorphism with ' 'susceptibility to symptomatic pertussis. PLoS ONE 11, e0149576 (2016).', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00431-014-2433-0', 'author': 'W Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '621', 'journal-title': 'Eur. J. Pediatr.', 'key': '2275_CR41', 'unstructured': 'Li, W. et al. Polymorphism rs2239185 in vitamin D receptor gene is ' 'associated with severe community-acquired pneumonia of children in ' 'Chinese Han population: a case–control study. Eur. J. Pediatr. 174, ' '621–629 (2015).', 'volume': '174', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41390-018-0149-y', 'author': 'H Abouzeid', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '639', 'journal-title': 'Pediatr. Res.', 'key': '2275_CR42', 'unstructured': 'Abouzeid, H. et al. Association of vitamin D receptor gene FokI ' 'polymorphism and susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children: a ' 'multicenter study. Pediatr. Res. 84, 639–644 (2018).', 'volume': '84', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/cen.14664', 'author': 'T Apaydin', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '819', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Endocrinol.', 'key': '2275_CR43', 'unstructured': 'Apaydin, T. et al. Effects of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on ' 'the prognosis of COVID-19. Clin. Endocrinol. 96, 819–830 (2022).', 'volume': '96', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098', 'author': 'R Abdollahzadeh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '105098', 'journal-title': 'Infect. Genet. Evol.', 'key': '2275_CR44', 'unstructured': 'Abdollahzadeh, R. et al. Association of Vitamin D receptor gene ' 'polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Infect. ' 'Genet. Evol. 96, 105098 (2021).', 'volume': '96', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/mend.14.3.0435', 'author': 'PW Jurutka', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '401', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Endocrinol.', 'key': '2275_CR45', 'unstructured': 'Jurutka, P. W. et al. The polymorphic N terminus in human vitamin D ' 'receptor isoforms influences transcriptional activity by modulating ' 'interaction with transcription factor IIB. Mol. Endocrinol. 14, 401–420 ' '(2000).', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2000'}], 'reference-count': 45, 'references-count': 45, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-022-02275-6'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit