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Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis of 392 Cases in Italy
Cosentino et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11206138
Cosentino et al., Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis of 392 Cases in Italy, Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11206138
Oct 2022   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 392 outpatients in Italy showing 0.2% mortality with early treatment, compared with >3% in Italy at the time. Treatment varied for individual patients and included HCQ, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc, quercetin, bromhexine, aspirin, and azithromycin.
Cosentino et al., 18 Oct 2022, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, mean age 48.5, 12 authors, study period 1 November, 2020 - 31 March, 2021.
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Abstract: Journal of Clinical Medicine Article Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis of 392 Cases in Italy Marco Cosentino 1, *,† , Veronica Vernocchi 2, *,† , Stefano Martini 1 , Franca Marino 1 , Barbara Allasino 2 , Maria Antonietta Bàlzola 2 , Fabio Burigana 2 , Alberto Dallari 2 , Carlo Servo Florio Pagano 2 , Antonio Palma 2 , Mauro Rango 2 and on behalf of IppocrateOrg Association Working Group for the Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19 ‡ 1 2 * † ‡ Citation: Cosentino, M.; Vernocchi, V.; Martini, S.; Marino, F.; Allasino, B.; Bàlzola, M.A.; Burigana, F.; Dallari, A.; Pagano, C.S.F.; Palma, A.; et al. Early Outpatient Treatment of COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis of 392 Cases in Italy. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 6138. 10.3390/jcm11206138 Academic Editor: Jose-Manuel Ramos-Rincon Received: 13 September 2022 Accepted: 16 October 2022 Center for Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy IppocrateOrg Association, Via Canova 15, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland Correspondence: (M.C.); (V.V.) These authors contributed equally to this work. Collaborators/Membership of the Group/Team Name is provided in the Appendix A. Abstract: COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020. The knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology soon provided a strong rationale for the early use of both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic drugs; however, its evidence was slowly and partially incorporated into institutional guidelines. The unmet needs of COVID-19 outpatients were taken care of by networks of physicians and researchers. We analyse the characteristics, management and outcomes in COVID-19 outpatients who were taken care of by physicians within the IppocrateOrg Association. In this observational retrospective study, volunteering doctors provided data on 392 COVID-19 patients. The mean age of patients was 48.5 years (range: 0.5–97), and patients were taken care of in COVID-19 stage 0 (15.6%), stage 1 (50.0%), stage 2a (28.8%) and stage 2b (5.6%). Many patients were overweight (26%) or obese (11.5%), with chronic comorbidities (34.9%), mainly cardiovascular (23%) and metabolic (13.3%). The most frequently prescribed drugs included: vitamins and supplements (98.7%), aspirin (66.1%), antibiotics (62%), glucocorticoids (41.8%), hydroxychloroquine (29.6%), enoxaparin (28.6%), colchicine (8.9%), oxygen therapy (6.9%), and ivermectin (2.8%). Hospitalization occurred in 5.8% of cases, mainly in stage 2b (27.3%). A total of 390 patients (99.6%) recovered; one patient was lost at follow up, and one patient died after hospitalization. This is the first real-world study describing the behaviours of physicians caring for COVID-19 outpatients, and the outcomes of COVID-19 early treatment. The lethality in this cohort was 0.2%, while overall, and over the same period, the COVID-19 lethality in Italy was over 3%. The drug use described in this study appears effective and safe. The present evidence should be carefully considered by physicians and political decision makers. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; primary care; family medicine; early outpatient treatment Published: 18 October 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
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