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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality, 10ng/mL 48% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, 20ng/mL 43% Vitamin D  Athanassiou et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 88 patients in Greece Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.39) Athanassiou et al., Life, September 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Levels as a Marker of Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Athanassiou et al., Life, doi:10.3390/life14020210 (date from preprint)
Sep 2023  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 118 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 88 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and matched controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients, and higher mortality for COVID-19 patients with deficiency of insufficiency in unadjusted results, without statistical significance.
This is the 187th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of death, 47.9% lower, RR 0.52, p = 0.39, high D levels (≥10ng/mL) 5 of 64 (7.8%), low D levels (<10ng/mL) 3 of 20 (15.0%), NNT 14.
risk of death, 43.0% lower, RR 0.57, p = 0.70, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 2 of 31 (6.5%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 6 of 53 (11.3%), NNT 21.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Athanassiou et al., 15 Sep 2023, prospective, Greece, peer-reviewed, 9 authors. Contact: (corresponding author),,,,,,,,
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Levels as a Marker of Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Lambros Athanassiou, Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Sofia Nikolakopoulou, Alexandra Konstantinou, Olga Mascha, Evangelos Siarkos, Charilaos Samaras, Panagiotis Athanassiou, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Life, doi:10.3390/life14020210
The SARS-CoV-2 virus may cause severe infection, which is associated with diverse clinical manifestations. Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties and may enhance the body's defense system against invading pathogenic organisms. The aim was to assess 25(OH)D 3 levels in patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and explore the relationship between 25(OH)D 3 and outcomes. In a group of 88 patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a control group matched for age and sex, the levels of 25(OH)D 3 were analyzed. Levels of 25(OH)D 3 were 17.36 ± 8.80 ng/mL (mean ± SD) compared with 24.34 ± 10.34 ng/mL in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and the control group, respectively, p < 0.001 (Student's t-test). 25(OH)D 3 levels were significantly related to outcomes, i.e., survival as opposed to nonsurvival, as more patients with 25(OH)D 3 deficiency (0-10 ng/mL) and insufficiency (10-20 ng/mL) had a fatal outcome as compared with those with vitamin D sufficiency (p < 0.001, chi-square test, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely related to C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, d-dimer, and fibrinogen levels (p < 0.001, linear regression analysis, beta coefficient of variation, -0.176, -0.160, -0.178, and -0.158, respectively). Vitamin D deficiency observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was related to disease outcomes.
Funding: This research received no external funding. Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of Asclepeion Hospital, Voula, Athens, Greece, approval number 15335, 24 November 2020. Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Written informed consent has been obtained from the patients to publish this paper. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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