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Comparative Analysis of Serum Zinc, Copper and Magnesium Level and Their Relations in Association with Severity and Mortality in SARS-CoV-2 Patients

PVSN et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-022-03124-7
Jan 2022  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of 150 COVID+ hospitalized patients in India, showing lower zinc levels associated with higher severity.
PVSN et al., 22 Jan 2022, India, peer-reviewed, 14 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Comparative Analysis of Serum Zinc, Copper and Magnesium Level and Their Relations in Association with Severity and Mortality in SARS-CoV-2 Patients
Kiran Kumar Pvsn, Sojit Tomo, Purvi Purohit, Shrimanjunath Sankanagoudar, Jayakaran Charan, Abhishek Purohit, Vijaylakshami Nag, Pradeep Bhatia, Kuldeep Singh, Naveen Dutt, Mahendra Kumar Garg, Praveen Sharma, Sanjeev Misra, Dharamveer Yadav
Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-022-03124-7
The deficiencies of trace elements and infectious diseases often coexist and exhibit complex interactions. Several trace elements such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) have immunomodulatory functions and thus influence the susceptibility to the course and outcome of a variety of viral infections. So, this present study was aimed to study relations of trace metals in association with severity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. A total of 150 individuals infected with COVID-19 and 50 healthy individuals were recruited. Cases were divided based on severity (mild, moderate and severe) and outcome (discharged or deceased). Serum Zn, Mg and Cu levels were analysed by direct colourimetric method. Both serum Cu and Zn levels were significantly decreased in cases when compared to those in controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.0001). Serum magnesium levels although not significant were found to be slightly decreased in controls. On comparing the trace elements between the deceased and discharged cases, a significant difference was found between serum copper and zinc levels, but for magnesium, both groups have similar levels. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve results indicate that a serum Cu/Zn ratio along with the age of patient provides some reliable information on COVID-19 course and survival odds by yielding an AUC of 95.1% with a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 89.8%. Therefore, we would like to emphasize that measuring the serum copper and zinc along with their ratio can be used as routine investigations for COVID-19 patients in proper identification and management of severe cases in upcoming new waves of COVID-19.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s12011-022-03124-7. Author Contribution Declarations Ethics Approval This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the institutional ethics committee. Consent to Participate All participants has freely given informed consent to participate in the study. Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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