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All-Trans Retinoic Acid Exhibits Antiviral Effect against SARS-CoV-2 by Inhibiting 3CLpro Activity

Morita et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13081669 (In Vitro)
Morita et al., All-Trans Retinoic Acid Exhibits Antiviral Effect against SARS-CoV-2 by Inhibiting 3CLpro Activity, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13081669 (In Vitro)
Aug 2021   Source   PDF  
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In Vitro and In Silico study showing that all-trans retinoic acid is a potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, and is effective against alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants in Calu-3 cells.
3 In Vitro studies support the efficacy of vitamin A [DiGuilio, Morita, Tong].
Morita et al., 23 Aug 2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
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All-Trans Retinoic Acid Exhibits Antiviral Effect against SARS-CoV-2 by Inhibiting 3CLpro Activity
Takeshi Morita, Kei Miyakawa, Sundararaj Stanleyraj Jeremiah, Yutaro Yamaoka, Mitsuru Sada, Tomoko Kuniyoshi, Jinwei Yang, Hirokazu Kimura, Akihide Ryo
Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13081669
The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread despite the global efforts taken to control it. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), the major protease of SARS-CoV-2, is one of the most interesting targets for antiviral drug development because it is highly conserved among SARS-CoVs and plays an important role in viral replication. Herein, we developed high throughput screening for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor based on AlphaScreen. We screened 91 natural product compounds and found that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an FDA-approved drug, inhibited 3CLpro activity. The 3CLpro inhibitory effect of ATRA was confirmed in vitro by both immunoblotting and AlphaScreen with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) of 24.7 ± 1.65 µM. ATRA inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 cells, with IC 50 = 2.69 ± 0.09 µM in the former and 0.82 ± 0.01 µM in the latter. Further, we showed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of ATRA on the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC); alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. These results suggest that ATRA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2.
Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at 10.3390/v13081669/s1, Figure S1 : The comparison of FRET and AlphaScreen, Figure S2 : Graphical determination of the type pf inhibition, Figure S3 : Cytotoxicity of ATRA, Figure S4 : Protein expression in ATRA treated Calu-3 cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection, Figure S5 : Amino acid sequence alignment of 3CLpro, Table S1 : The list of compounds screened by the enzyme assay. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no competing financial interest. Y.Y. is a current employee of Kanto Chemical Co., Inc. T.K. and J.Y. are a current employee of TOKIWA Phytochemical Co., Ltd.
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