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Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin A and cell differentiation (ID 14), function of the immune system (ID 14), maintenance of skin and mucous membranes (ID 15, 17), maintenance of vision (ID 16), maintenance of bone (ID 13, 17), maintenance of teeth (ID 13, 17), maintenance of hair (ID 17), maintenance of nails (ID 17), metabolism of iron (ID 206), and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 209) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

EFSA, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1221
Oct 2009  
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Vitamin A for COVID-19
39th treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2023
 
*, now known with p = 0.045 from 12 studies.
Lower risk for recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
European Food Safety Administration review concluding that there is a causal relationship between the intake of vitamin A and immune system function.
EFSA et al., 1 Oct 2009, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
This PaperVitamin AAll
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin A and cell differentiation (ID 14), function of the immune system (ID 14), maintenance of skin and mucous membranes (ID 15, 17), maintenance of vision (ID 16), maintenance of bon
Jean-Louis Bresson, Albert Flynn, Marina Heinonen, Karin Hulshof, Hannu Korhonen, Pagona Lagiou, Martinus Løvik, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Bevan Moseley, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, J J ) Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Henk Van Den Berg, Hendrik Van Loveren, Hans Verhagen
EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1221
ID 16), maintenance of bone (ID 13, 17), maintenance of teeth (ID 13, 17), maintenance of hair (ID 17), maintenance of nails (ID 17), metabolism of iron (ID 206), and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage
INFORMATION AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSOLIDATED LIST The consolidated list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 3 submitted by Member States contains main entry claims with corresponding conditions of use and literature from similar health claims. The information provided in the consolidated list for the health claims subject to this opinion is tabulated in Appendix C. APPENDICES APPENDIX A BACKGROUND AND TERMS OF REFERENCE AS PROVIDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION The Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods 6 (hereinafter "the Regulation") entered into force on 19 th January 2007. Article 13 of the Regulation foresees that the Commission shall adopt a Community list of permitted health claims other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and health. This Community list shall be adopted through the Regulatory Committee procedure and following consultation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Health claims are defined as "any claim that states, suggests or implies that a relationship exists between a food category, a food or one of its constituents and health". In accordance with Article 13 (1) health claims other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and health are health claims describing or referring to: a) the role of a nutrient or other substance in growth, development and the functions of the body;..
References
Biesalski, Fürst, Kasper, Kluthe, Pölert et al., Ernährungsmedizin
Field, Johnson, Schley, Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection, J Leukoc Biol
Ross, Vitamin A and carotenoids, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease
Ruhl, Effects of dietary retinoids and carotenoids on immune development, Proc Nutr Soc
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