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In-silico screening and in-vitro assay show the antiviral effect of Indomethacin against SARS-CoV-2

Chakraborty et al., Computers in Biology and Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105788
Jun 2022  
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Vitamin A for COVID-19
12th treatment shown to reduce risk in January 2021
*, now known with p = 0.031 from 13 studies.
Lower risk for recovery and viral clearance.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
In Silico study predicting indomethacin and vitamin A can bind critical host and viral proteins for SARS-CoV-2 interaction, and may be able to compensate for gene expressions changes related to SARS-CoV-2.
10 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin A for COVID-19:
Vitamin A has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin A has potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in both human cell lines and human organoids of the lower respiratory tract (active metabolite all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA) Tong, is predicted to bind critical host and viral proteins for SARS-CoV-2 and may compensate for gene expression changes related to SARS-CoV-2 Chakraborty, Huang, Pandya, may be beneficial for COVID-19 via antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects according to network pharmacology analysis Li, reduces barrier compromise caused by TNF-α in Calu-3 cells DiGuilio, inhibits mouse coronavirus replication Franco, may stimulate innate immunity by activating interferon responses in an IRF3-dependent manner (ATRA) Franco, may reduce excessive inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 Huang, shows SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity In Vitro Huang, Moatasim, Morita, is effective against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in Calu-3 cells Morita, and inhibits the entry and replication of SARS-CoV-2 via binding to ACE2 / 3CLpro / RdRp / helicase / 3′-to-5′ exonuclease Huang.
Study covers indomethacin and vitamin A.
Chakraborty et al., 30 Jun 2022, peer-reviewed, 11 authors. Contact:,,
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperVitamin AAll
In-silico screening and in-vitro assay show the antiviral effect of Indomethacin against SARS-CoV-2
Rajkumar Chakraborty, Gourab Bhattacharje, Joydeep Baral, Bharat Manna, Jayati Mullick, Basavaraj S Mathapati, Priya Abraham, Yasha Hasija, Amit Ghosh, Amit Kumar Das
Computers in Biology and Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105788
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 19 , and till now, it has caused death to more than 6.2 million people. Although various vaccines and drug candidates are being tested globally with limited to moderate success, a comprehensive therapeutic cure is yet to be achieved. In this study, we applied computational drug repurposing methods complemented with the analyses of the already existing gene expression data to find better therapeutics in treatment and recovery. Primarily, we identified the most crucial proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host human cells responsible for viral infection and host response. An in-silico screening of the existing drugs was performed against the crucial proteins for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a few existing drugs were shortlisted. Further, we analyzed the gene expression data of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial cells and investigated the molecules that can reverse the cellular mRNA expression profiles in the diseased state. LINCS L1000 and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) were utilized to obtain two sets of compounds that can be used to counter SARS-CoV-2 infection from the gene expression perspective. Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and Vitamin-A were found in two sets of compounds, and in the in-silico screening of existing drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2. Our in-silico findings on Indomethacin were further successfully validated by in-vitro testing in Vero CCL-81 cells with an IC 50 of 12 μM. Along with these findings, we briefly discuss the possible roles of Indomethacin and Vitamin-A to counter the SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.
Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi. org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105788.
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