Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All fluvoxamine studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchFluvoxamineFluvoxamine (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Mechanisms of action of fluvoxamine for COVID-19: a historical review

Hashimoto et al., Molecular Psychiatry, doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01432-3
Jan 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
27th treatment shown to reduce risk in November 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.00011 from 20 studies, recognized in 3 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Review of the potential mechanisms of action of fluvoxamine for COVID-19.
Reviews covering fluvoxamine for COVID-19 include Hashimoto, Hashimoto (B), Hashimoto (C), Hoertel, Kirsch, Sukhatme.
Hashimoto et al., 7 Jan 2022, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperFluvoxamineAll
Mechanisms of action of fluvoxamine for COVID-19: a historical review
Yaeko Hashimoto, Takuji Suzuki, Kenji Hashimoto
Molecular Psychiatry, doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01432-3
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) accelerates the discovery of prophylactic and therapeutic drugs for persons infected with the virus. Drug repurposing for the COVID-19 pandemic has received particular attention. Increasing clinical data suggest that antidepressant use in early-stage subjects with COVID-19 might be associated with a reduced risk of intubation or death. Among the antidepressants, fluvoxamine is the most attractive drug for mild to moderate subjects with COVID-19. In this article, we review the mechanisms of action (i.e., serotonin transporter, sigma-1 receptor, and acid sphingomyelinase) of fluvoxamine for COVID-19. Furthermore, we discuss a possible link between maternal COVID-19 infection and a risk for neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia) in offspring.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Y.H., T.S., and K.H. did the reference search and wrote the manuscript. Y.H. and K.H. prepared the figures and table. All authors approved the final manuscript. CONFLICT OF INTEREST Dr. Y. Hashimoto and Dr. T. Suzuki have no conflict of interest. Dr. K. Hashimoto is the inventor of filed patent applications on "The use of R-Ketamine in the treatment of psychiatric diseases", "(S)-norketamine and salt thereof as pharmaceutical", "R-Ketamine and derivative thereof as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent for neurodegeneration disease or recognition function disorder", "Preventive or therapeutic agent and pharmaceutical composition for inflammatory diseases or bone diseases", and "R-Ketamine and its derivatives as a preventive or therapeutic agent for a neurodevelopmental disorder" by the Chiba University. Dr. K. Hashimoto has also received speakers' honoraria, consultant fees, or research support from Abbott, Meiji Seika Pharma, Dainippon-Sumitomo, Taisho, Otsuka, Murakami Farm, and Perception Neuroscience. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to Kenji Hashimoto. Reprints and permission information is available at http://www.nature.com/reprints Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
References
Adnot, Houssaini, Abid, Amsellem, Serotonin transporter and serotonin receptors, Handb Exp Pharm
Albayrak, Hashimoto, Sigma-1 receptor agonists and their clinical implication in neuropsychiatric disorders, Adv Exp Med Biol
Andalib, Emamhadi, Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shakouri, Høilund-Carlsen et al., Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring: a meta-analysis and systematic review, Eur Psychiatry
Anderson, Fluvoxamine, melatonin and COVID-19, Psychopharmacology
Anderson, Reiter, Melatonin: roles in influenza, Covid-19, and other infections, Rev Med Virol
Atladóttir, Thorsen, Østergaard, Schendel, Lemcke et al., maternal infection requiring hospitalization during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders, J Autism Dev Disord
Beckmann, Becker, Ceramide and related molecules in viral infections, Int J Mol Sci
Brimson, Prasanth, Malar, Brimson, Thitilertdecha et al., Drugs that offer the potential to reduce hospitalization and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection: the possible role of the sigma-1 receptor and autophagy, Expert Opin Ther Targets
Brown, Begg, Gravenstein, Schaefer, Wyatt et al., Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiatry
Brown, Meyer, Maternal immune activation and neuropsychiatric illness: a translational research perspective, Am J Psychiatry
Brown, Patterson, Maternal infection and schizophrenia: implications for prevention, Schizophr Bull
Calusic, Marcec, Luksa, Jurkovic, Kovac et al., Safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine in COVID-19 ICU patients: an open label, prospective cohort trial with matched controls, Bri J Clin Pharm, doi:10.1111/bcp.15126
Carpinteiro, Edwards, Hoffmann, Kochs, Gripp et al., Pharmacological inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase prevents uptake of SARS-CoV-2 by epithelial cells, Cell Rep Med
Cavasotto, Di, In silico drug repurposing for COVID-19: targeting SARS-CoV-2 proteins through docking and consensus ranking, Mol Inform
Ciapponi, Bardach, Comandé, Berrueda, Argento et al., COVID-19 and pregnancy: an umbrella review of clinical presentation, vertical transmission, and maternal and perinatal outcomes, PLoS ONE
Dallé, Daniels, Mabandia, Fluvoxamine maleate normalizes striatal neuronal inflammatory cytokine activity in a Parkinsonian rat model associated with depression, Behav Brain Res
Dhindsa, Zhang, Mcphaul, Wu, Ghoshal et al., Association of circulating sex hormones with inflammation and disease severity in patients with COVID-19, JAMA Netw Open
Dong, Zhang, Yao, Ren, Yang et al., Effects of escitalopram, Rcitalopram, and reboxetine on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration, Pharm Biochem Behav
Dragioti, Solmi, Favaro, Fusar-Poli, Dazzan et al., Association of antidepressant use with adverse health outcomes: a systematic umbrella review, JAMA Psychiatry
El-Battrawy, Nuñez-Gil, Abumayyaleh, Estrada, Becerra-Muñoz et al., COVID-19 and the impact of arterial hypertension-An analysis of the international HOPE COVID-19 Registry (Italy-Spain-Germany), Eur J Clin Invest
Fei, Santarelli, 'anna, Moretti, Mirossi et al., Can SSRI/SNRI antidepressants decrease the 'cytokine storm' in the course of COVID-19 pneumonia?, Panminerva Med, doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04436-0.
Fred, Kuivanen, Ugurlu, Casarotto, Levanov et al., Antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs reduce viral infection by SARS-CoV-2 and fluoxetine show antiviral activity against the novel variants in vitro, bioRxiv
Friesland, Mingorance, Chung, Chisari, Gastaminza, Sigma-1 receptor regulates early steps of viral RNA replication at the inset of hepatitis C virus infection, J Virol
Fujita, Fujita, Ishima, Hirai, Suzuki et al., Dietary intake of glucoraphanin during pregnancy and lactation prevents the behavioral abnormalities in the offspring after maternal immune activation, Neuropsychopharmacol Rep
Gebhard, Regitz-Zagrosek, Neuhauser, Morgan, Klein, Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe, Biol Sex Differ
Ghandehari, Matusov, Pepkowitz, Stein, Kaderi et al., Progesterone in addition to standard of care vs standard of care alone in the treatment of men hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19: a randomized, controlled pilot trial, Chest
Ghareghani, Zibara, Sadeghi, Dokoohaki, Sadeghi et al., Fluvoxamine stimulates oligodendrogenesis of cultured neural stem cells and attenuates inflammation and demyelination in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, Sci Rep
Glebov, Low-dose fluvoxamine modulates endocytic trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: a potential mechanism for anti-COVID-19 protection by antidepressants, Front Pharmacol
Gordon, Hiatt, Bouhaddou, Rezelj, Ulferts et al., Comparative host-coronavirus protein interaction networks reveal pan-viral disease mechanisms, Science
Gordon, Jang, Bouhaddou, Xu, Obernier et al., A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing, Nature
Gulbins, Palmada, Reichel, Lüth, Böhmer et al., Acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system mediates effects of antidepressant drugs, Nat Med
Gulbins, Schumacher, Becker, Wilker, Soddemann et al., Antidepressants act by inducing autophagy controlled by sphingomyelinceramide, Mol Psychiatry
Hanner, Moebius, Flandorfer, Knaus, Striessnig et al., Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of the mammalian sigma 1 -binding site, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Hashimoto, Activation of sigma-1 receptor chaperone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and its clinical implication, J Pharm Sci
Hashimoto, Fujita, Iyo, Phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice are improved by subsequent subchronic administration of fluvoxamine: role of sigma-1 receptors, Neuropsychopharmacology
Hashimoto, Goromaru, High-affinity [ 3 H]6-nitroquipazine binding to the 5-hydroxytryptamine transport system in rat lung, Biochem Pharm
Hashimoto, Goromaru, High-affinity binding of [ 3 H]6-nitroquipazine to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter in human platelets, Eur J Pharm
Hashimoto, Inflammatory biomarkers as differential predictors of antidepressant response, Int J Mol Sci
Hashimoto, Inoue, Suzuki, Yamasaki, Kojima, Synthesis and evaluation of [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine, Int J Rad Appl Instrum B
Hashimoto, Recent advances in the early intervention in schizophrenia: future direction from preclinical findings, Curr Psychiatry Rep
Hashimoto, Repurposing of CNS drugs to treat COVID-19 infection: the sigma-1 receptor, Arch psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Hashimoto, Risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring of COVID-19-infected pregnant women and nutritional intervention, Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Hashimoto, Sigma-1 receptor chaperone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: emerging links between cardiovascular disease and depression, Prog Neurobiol
Hashimoto, Suzuki, Hashimoto, Old drug fluvoxamine, new hope for COVID-19, Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, doi:10.1007/s00406-021-01326-z
Hayashi, Su, Sigma-1 receptor chaperones at the ER-mitochondrion interface regulate Ca 2+ signaling and cell survival, Cell
Hayashi, Tsai, Mori, Fujimoto, Su, Targeting ligand-operated chaperone sigma-1 receptors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, Expert Opin Ther Targets
Hindmarch, Hashimoto, Cognition and depression: the effects of fluvoxamine, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, reconsidered, Hum Psychopharmacol
Hoertel, Sánchez-Rico, Cougoule, Gulbins, Kornhuber et al., Repurposing antidepressants inhibiting the sphingomyelinase acid/ceramide system against COVID-19: current evidence and potential mechanisms, Mol Psychiatry, doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01254-3
Hoertel, Sánchez-Rico, Gulbins, Kornhuber, Carpinteiro et al., Association between FIASMAs and reduced risk of intubation or death in individuals hospitalized for severe COVID-19: an observational multicenter study, Clin Pharm Ther
Hoertel, Sánchez-Rico, Vernet, Beeker, Jannot et al., Association between antidepressant use and reduced risk of intubation or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: results from an observational study, Mol Psychiatry
Hoertel, Sánchez-Rico, Vernet, Jannot, Neuraz et al., Observational study of chlorpromazine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, Clin Drug Invest
Hoertel, Sánchez-Rico, Vernet, Jannot, Neuraz et al., Observational study of haloperidol in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, PLoS ONE
Hoffman, Freedman, Law, Clark, Hunter, Maternal nutrients and effects of gestational COVID-19 infection on fetal brain development, Clin Nutr ESPEN
Ishikawa, Ishiwata, Ishii, Kimura, Sakata et al., High occupancy of sigma-1 receptors in the human brain after single oral administration of fluvoxamine: a positron emission tomography using [ 11 C]SA4503, Biol Psychiatry
Ishima, Fujita, Hashimoto, Interactions of new antidepressants with sigma-1 receptor chaperons and their potentiation of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, Eur J Pharm
Islam, Poly, Walther, Yang, Wang et al., Clinical characteristics and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19: a systematic review, Front Med
Jedlitschky, Greinacher, Kroemer, Transporters in human platelets: physiologic function and impact for pharmacotherapy, Blood
Jin, Bai, He, Wu, Liu et al., Gender differences in patients with COVID-19: Focus on severity and mortality, Front Public Health
Kornhuber, Hoertel, Gulbins, The acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system in COVID-19, Mol Psychiatry, doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01309-5
Kornhuber, Muehlbacher, Trapp, Pechmann, Friedl et al., Identification of novel functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase, PLoS ONE
Kornhuber, Tripal, Reichel, Mühle, Rhein et al., Functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs): a novel pharmacological group of drugs with broad clinical applications, Cell Physiol Biochem
Kow, Merchant, Mustafa, Hasan, The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis, Pharm Rep
Kreuzberger, Hirsch, Chai, Tomlinson, Khosravi et al., SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID-19, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Lanser, Burkert, Thommens, Egger, Hoermann et al., Testosterone deficiency is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, Front Endocrinol
Lenze, Mattar, Zorumski, Zorumski, Stevens et al., Fluvoxamine vs placebo and clinical deterioration in outpatients with symptomatic COVID-19. A randomized clinical trial, JAMA
Li, Freedman, Prospects for improving future mental health of children through prenatal maternal micronutrient supplementation in China, Pediatr Investig
Li, Ge, Yang, Feng, Qiao et al., Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control, Brain Behav immun
Li, Wang, Wu, Gulbins, Grassmé et al., Acid sphingomyelinaseceramide system in bacterial infections, Cell Physiol Biochem
Lins, Maternal immune activation as a risk factor for psychiatric illness in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Brain Behav Immun Health
Loas, Corre, Update on functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FISMAs) in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Pharm
López-Medina, López, Hurtado, Dávalos, Ramirez et al., Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults with mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA
Mahase, Covid-19: molnupiravir reduces risk of hospital admission or death by 50% in patients at risk, MSD reports, BMJ
Makvandi, Mahdavian, Kazemi-Nia, Vahedian-Azimi, Guest et al., The 2019 novel coronavirus disease in pregnancy: a systematic review, Adv Exp Med Biol
Matsuura, Ishima, Fujita, Iwayama, Hasegawa et al., Dietary glucoraphanin the onset of psychosis in the adult offspring after immune activation, Sci Rep
Maurer-Spurej, Pittendreigh, Solomons, The influence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on human platelet serotonin, Thromb Haemost
Mazza, Zanardi, Palladini, Rovere-Querini, Benedetti, Rapid response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in post-COVID depression, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
Mezzacappa, Lasica, Gianfagna, Cazas, Hardy et al., Risk for autism spectrum disorders according to period of prenatal antidepressant exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis, JAMA Pediatr
Mitjà, Corbacho-Monné, Ubals, Alemany, Suñer et al., A cluster-randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for prevention of Covid-19, N Eng J Med
Narita, Hashimoto, Tomitaka, Minabe, of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with subtypes of sigma receptors in brain, Eur J Pharm
Ng, Salim, Chu, Drug repurposing for COVID-19: approaches, challenges and promising candidates, Pharm Ther
Niitsu, Iyo, Hashimoto, Sigma-1 receptor agonists as therapeutic drugs for cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders, Curr Pharm Des
Nishimura, Ishima, Iyo, Hashimoto, Potentiation of nerve growth factorinduced neurite outgrowth by fluvoxamine: role of sigma-1 receptors, IP 3 receptors and cellular signaling pathways, PLoS ONE
Ohgi, Futamura, Kikuchi, Hashimoto, Effects of antidepressants on alterations in serum cytokines and depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration, Pharm Biochem Behav
Oskotsky, Maric, Tang, Oskotsky, Wong et al., Mortality risk among patients with COVID-19 prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, JAMA Netw Open
Patterson, Maternal infection and immune involvement in autism, Trends Mol Med
Plaze, Attali, Prot, Petit, Blatzer et al., Inhibition of the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells by the FDA-approved drug chlorpromazine, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Rafiee, Hajhashemi, Javanmard, Fluvoxamine inhibits some inflammatory genes expression in LPS/stimulated human endothelial cells, U937 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat, Iran J Basic Med Sci
Reis, Silva, Silva, Thabane, Milagres et al., Effect of early treatment with fluvoxamine on risk of emergency care and hospitalization among patients with COVID-19: the TOGETHER randomized, platform clinical trial, Lancet Glob Health, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00448-4
Reis, Silva, Silva, Thabane, Singh et al., Effect of early treatment with hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir and ritonavir on risk of hospitalization among patients with COVID-19: the TOGETHER randomized clinical trial, JAMA Netw Open
Roman, Burela, Pasupuleti, Piscoya, Vidal et al., Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Clin Infect Dis
Rosen, Seki, Fernández-Castañeda, Beiter, Eccles et al., Modulation of the sigma-1 receptor-IRE1 pathway is beneficial in preclinical models of inflammation and sepsis, Sci Transl Med
Salata, Calistri, Parolin, Baritussio, Palù, Antiviral activity of cationic amphiphilic drugs, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
Salonia, Pontillo, Capogrosso, Gregori, Tassara et al., Severely low testosterone in males with COVID-19: a case-control study, Andrology
Sax, Could this be our first effective, inexpensive, widely available outpatient treatment for COVID-19
Seftel, Boulware, Prospective cohort of fluvoxamine for early treatment of coronavirus disease 19, Open Forum Infect Dis
Self, Semler, Leither, Casey, Angus et al., Effect of hydroxychloroquine on clinical status at 14 days in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA
Shah, COVID-19 and progesterone: Part 1. SARS-CoV-2, progesterone and its potential clinical use, Endcr Metab Sci
Shah, COVID-19 and progesterone: Part 2. Unraveling high severity, immunity patterns, immunity grading, progesterone and its potential clinical use, Endcr Metab Sci
Shi, Lu, Que, Huang, Lu et al., Long-term impact of COVID-19 on mental health among the general public: a nationwide longitudinal study in China, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Shimabukuro, Kim, Meyers, Moro, Oduyebo et al., Preliminary findings of mRNA Covid-19 vaccine safety in pregnant persons, N. Eng J Med
Siddiqi, Mehra, COVID-19 illness in naïve and immunosuppressed states: a clinical-therapeutic staging proposal, J Heart Lung Transpl
Sidik, Common antidepressant slashes risk of COVID-19 death, Nature, doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02988-4
Srivastava, Singh, Drug repurposing in COVID-19: a review with past, present and future, Metab Open
Sujan, Rickert, Öberg, Quinn, Hernández-Díaz et al., Associations of maternal antidepressant use during the first trimester of pregnancy with preterm birth, small for gestational age, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring, JAMA
Sukhatme, Reiersen, Vayttaden, Sykhatme, Fluvoxamine: a review of its mechanisms of actions and its role in COVID-19, Front Pharm
Takano, Suhara, Sudo, Inoue, Hashimoto et al., Comparative evaluation of two serotonin transporter ligands in the human brain: [ 11 C](+)McN5652 and [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine, Eur J Nucl Med
Takebayashi, Hayashi, Su, Nerve growth factor-induced neurite sprouting in PC12 cells involves sigma-1 receptors: implications for antidepressants, J Pharm Exp Ther
Tam, Cook, Sigma opiates and certain antipsychotic drugs mutually inhibit (+)
Tanacan, Yazihan, Erol, Anuk, Yetiskin et al., The impact of COVID-19 infection on the cytokine profile of pregnant women: a prospective case-control study, Cytokine
Tomfohr-Madsen, Racine, Giesbrecht, Lebel, Madigan, Depression and anxiety in pregnancy during COVID-19: A rapid review and meta-analysis, Psychiatry Res
Tummino, Rezelj, Fischer, Fischer, Meara et al., Druginduced phospholipidosis confounds drug repurposing for SARS-CoV-2, Science
Tynan, Weidenhofer, Hinwood, Cairns, Day et al., A comparative examination of the antiinflammatory effects of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants on LPS stimulated microglia, Brain Behav Immun
Törnquist, Asghar, Srinivasan, Korhonen, Lindholm, Sphingolipids as modulators of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Front Cell Dev Biol
Vai, Mazza, Colli, Foiselle, Allen et al., Mental disorders and risk of COVID-19-related mortality, hospitalization, and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Psychiatry
Vasallo, Gastaminza, Cellular stress response in hepatitis C virus infection: mastering a two-edged sword, Virus Res
Vega, Newport, Bozhdaraj, Saltz, Nemeroff et al., Implementation of advanced methods for reproductive pharmacovigilance in autism: a meta-analysis of the effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure, Am J Psychiatry
Vela, Repurposing sigma-1 receptor ligands for COVID-19 therapy?, Front Pharm
Venkatesan, Repurposing drugs for treatment of COVID-19, Lancet Respir Med
Villar, Ariff, Gunier, Thiruvengadam, Rauch et al., Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality among pregnant women with and without COVID-19 infection: the INTERCOVID multinational cohort study, JAMA Pediatr
Wang, Wang, Liu, Qiao, Baldwin et al., Effects of SSRIs on peripheral inflammatory markers in patients with major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Brain Behav Immun
Wu, Xu, Chen, Duan, Hashimoto et al., Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses, Brain Behav Immun
Yuan, Gong, Liu, Sun, Tian et al., Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder after infectious disease pandemics in the twenty-first century, including COVID-19: a meta-analysis and systematic review, Mol Psychiatry
Zhang, Wang, Ni, Di, Ma et al., COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjunct treatment, Life Sci
Zhang, Xie, Hashimoto, Current status of potential therapeutic candidates for the COVID-19 crisis, Brain Behav Immun
Zhang, Xu, Xie, Zhang, Huang et al., Poor-sleep is associated with slow recovery from lymphopenia and an increased need for ICU care in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study, Brain Behav Immun
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit