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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 79% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Gaudio et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 150 patients in Italy Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.000079) Gaudio et al., Int. J. Environmental R.., Mar 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients

Gaudio et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491
Mar 2021  
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Retrospective 50 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Italy with vitamin D levels measured on admission, and 100 matched control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were also lower in COVID-19 patients with severe cases, without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.08, details not provided).
This is the 58th of 186 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 179 vigintillion).
risk of case, 79.3% lower, OR 0.21, p < 0.001, high D levels 27 of 50 (54.0%) cases, 85 of 100 (85.0%) controls, NNT 2.7, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gaudio et al., 27 Mar 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients
Agostino Gaudio, Andrea Ruben Murabito, Antonella Agodi, Arturo Montineri, Pietro Castellino
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a worldwide healthcare challenge that needs an efficient response. Unfortunately, to date there is no highly effective treatment, so a deep understanding of COVID-19 risk factors could be an important step in treating the disease. Vitamin D affects the immune system in many different ways, and other authors already found that COVID-19 patients have low levels of vitamin D. In our retrospective study, we evaluated the vitamin D status at the time of hospital admission in 50 COVID-19 patients in Sicily, which is the southernmost region of Italy, and compared them with 100 control subjects matched for age and sex. Our data showed markedly low levels of vitamin D in patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but no association was found with inflammation markers or clinical severity. Vitamin D levels were reduced at the time of hospital admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, but it is not clear whether this condition has an impact on the clinical course of COVID-19.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.G. and A.R.M.; methodology, A.A.; formal analysis, A.A.; investigation, A.R.M. and A.M.; resources, P.C.; data curation, A.M.; writing-original draft preparation, A.G. and A.R.M.; writing-review and editing, A.G. and P.C.; funding acquisition, P.C. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This study was partially funded by the 2020/2022 Research Plan 'Piaceri' of the University of Catania -line 2. Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Ethics Committee of Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico "G. Rodolico-San Marco" Catania (approval number 283 of 23 December, 2020). Informed Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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