Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for PVP-I  COVID-19 treatment studies for Povidone-Iod..  C19 studies: Povidone-Iod..  Povidone-Iod..   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
Can povidone Iodine gargle/mouthrinse inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the risk of nosocomial and community transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic? An evidence-based update
Chopra et al., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2021.03.001 (Review)
Chopra et al., Can povidone Iodine gargle/mouthrinse inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the risk of nosocomial and community.., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2021.03.001 (Review)
Mar 2021   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Review discussing the rationale, safety, recommendations, and dosage of PVP-I gargle/mouthwash as an effective method to decrease the viral load of SARS-CoV-2.
Chopra et al., 15 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperPovidone-Iod..All
Can povidone iodine gargle/mouthrinse inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the risk of nosocomial and community transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic? An evidence-based update
Aditi Chopra, Karthik Sivaraman, Raghu Radhakrishnan, Dhanasekar Balakrishnan, Aparna Narayana
Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2021.03.001
The Coronavirus disease in 2019 , also referred to as the novel 'CoV19 (nCov19)' is caused by a new coronavirus strain similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 spreads via respiratory droplets, saliva, or direct contact. Therefore it is important to control the viral load in the saliva and respiratory secretions. One of the most simple and cost-effective measures that can be adopted by the public and healthcare professionals to prevent cross-contamination and community transmission, is the implementation of effective oral and throat hygiene. Recent evidence has confirmed that 0.5% povidone iodine (PVP-I) mouthrinse/gargle for 30 s can reduce SARS-CoV-2 virus infectivity to below detectable levels. PVP-I can even interrupt SARS-CoV-2 attachment to oral and nasopharyngeal tissues and lower the viral particles in the saliva and respiratory droplets. Thus, the use of PVP-I mouthrinse as a prophylactic measure has been advocated across the globe to reduce disease transmission. Although the efficacy of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2 is proven, no review articles have yet discussed the evidence and mechanisms of PVP-I against the SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this paper highlights the rationale, safety, recommendations, and dosage of PVP-I gargle/mouthrinse as an effective method to decrease the viral loads during the pressing times of COVID-19.
Conflict of interest None. Source of funding None. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at
Amstey, Metcalf, Effect of povidone-iodine on herpesvirus type 2, in vitro, Obstet Gynecol
Andersen, Rambaut, Lipkin, Holmes, Garry, The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2, Nat Med
Anon, Prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (strategies for prevention of hospital-acquired infections), Respirology, doi:10.1093/function/zqaa002
Azarpazhooh, Leake, Systematic review of the association between respiratory diseases and oral health, J Periodontol
Backer, Klinkenberg, Wallinga, Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travelers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020, Euro Surveill, doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062
Beukelman, Van Den Berg, Hoekstra, Uhl, Reimer et al., Anti-inflammatory properties of a liposomal hydrogel with povidone-iodine (Repithel) for wound healing in vitro, Burns
Bidra, Pelletier, Westover, Frank, Brown et al., Comparison of in vitro inactivation of SARS CoV-2 with hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine oral antiseptic rinses, J Prosthodont
Bidra, Pelletier, Westover, Frank, Brown et al., Rapid in-vitro inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using povidone-iodine oral antiseptic rinse, J Prosthodont
Brennan, Bahrani-Mougeot, Fox, The role of oral microbial colonization in ventilator-associated pneumonia, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
Castagnoli, Votto, Licari, Brambilla, Bruno et al., Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents: a systematic review, JAMA Pediatr, doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062
Castro-Ruiz, Vergara-Buenaventura, Solution, A potential antiseptic to minimize the risk of COVID-19? A narrative review, J Int Soc Prev Community Dent, doi:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD30420
Challacombe, Kirk-Bayley, Sunkaraneni, Combes, Povidone-iodine, Br Dent J
Chan, Yuan, Kok, A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster, Lancet, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1097
Chin, Chu, Perera, Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions, Lancet Microbe, doi:10.1111/odi.13526
Cole, Cook, Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies, Am J Infect Control
Del Rio, Malani, 2019 novel coronavirus-important information for clinicians, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1490
Dexter, Parra, Brown, Loftus, Perioperative COVID-19 defense: an evidence-based approach for optimization of infection control and operating room management, Anesth Analg, doi:10.1177/0145561320957237
Edwards, Man, Brand, Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Eggers, Infectious disease management and control with povidone iodine, Infect Dis Ther
Eggers, Markus, In vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine gargle/mouthwash against respiratory and oral tract pathogens, Infect Dis Ther, doi:10.1007/s40121-018-0200-7
Feng, Li, Yao, Sun, Xu et al., Interpretation of policies for group standards and the practice of group standardizations in Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.04.001
Frank, Capriotti, Brown, Tessema, Povidone-iodine use in sinonasal and oral cavities: a review of safety in the COVID-19 era, Ear Nose Throat J, doi:10.1177/0145561320932318
Gabriel De Toledo, Caminha, Kallás, Sipahi, Da et al., Potential mouth rinses and nasal sprays that reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load: what we know so far?, Clinics, doi:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_304_20
Gralton, Tovey, Mclaws, Rawlinson, Respiratory virus RNA is detectable in airborne and droplet particles, J Med Virol, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1490
Hitosugi, Tsukamoto, Yokoyama, Pneumonia due to aspiration of povidone iodine after preoperative disinfection of the oral cavity, Oral Maxillofac Surg
Hoffmann, Kleine-Weber, Schroeder, Krüger, Herrler et al., SARS-cov-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor, Cell
Holshue, Debolt, Lindquist, First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States, N Engl J Med
Hua, Xie, Worthington, Furness, Zhang et al., Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Huang, Wang, Li, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Ito, Ito, Hikida, Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan and anti-influenza virus activity of povidone-iodine products, Dermatology
Kanagalingam, Feliciano, Hah, Labib, Le et al., Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections, Int J Clin Pract
Kariwa, Fujii, Takashima, Inactivation of SARS coronavirus by means of povidone-iodine, physical conditions and chemical reagents, Dermatology
Kariwa, Fujii, Takashima, Inactivation of SARS coronavirus by means of povidone-iodine, physical conditions, and chemical reagents, Jpn J Vet Res
Kawana, Kitamura, Nakagomi, Inactivation of human viruses by povidone-iodine in comparison with other antiseptics, Dermatology
Kirk-Bayley, Challacombe, Sunkaraneni, Combes, The use of povidone iodine nasal spray and mouthwash during the current COVID-19 pandemic may protect healthcare workers and reduce cross infection, SSRN Electron J
Kohn, Harte, Malvitz, Collins, Cleveland et al., Guidelines for infection control in dental health care settings -2003, J Am Dent Assoc
Kövesi, The use of Betadine antiseptic in the treatment of oral surgical, parodontological and oral mucosal diseases, Fogorv Sz
Lamas, Dios, Rodríguez, Is povidone iodine mouthwash effective against SARS-CoV-2? First in vivo tests, Oral Dis, doi:10.1111/odi.13526
Liang, Yuan, Wei, In-vivo toxicity studies and in-vitro inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by povidone-iodine in-situ gel forming formulations, bioRxiv Prepr Serv Biol
Liu, Cao, Lin, Oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Liu, Liao, Qian, Community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020, Emerg Infect Dis
Mady, Kubik, Baddour, Snyderman, Rowan, Personal Protective Equipment" for frontline providers exposed in high-risk head and neck and, Oral Oncol, doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104724
Malik, Sircar, Bhat, Emerging novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments, Vet Q, doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.04.001
Manger, Walshaw, Fitzgerald, Evidence summary: the relationship between oral health and pulmonary disease, Br Dent J
Meister, Brüggemann, Todt, Virucidal efficacy of different oral rinses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, J Infect Dis
Nagatake, Ahmed, Oishi, Prevention of respiratory infections by povidone-iodine gargle, Dermatology
O'donnell, Thomas, Stanton, Maillard, Murphy et al., Potential role of oral rinses targeting the viral lipid envelope in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Function, doi:10.1093/function/zqaa002
Paju, Scannapieco, Oral biofilms, periodontitis, and pulmonary infections, Oral Dis, doi:10.1177/0145561320932318
Parhar, Tasche, Brody, Topical preparations to reduce SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization in head and neck mucosal surgery, Head Neck
Pedersen, Uhrenfeldt, Larsen, Oral hygiene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a scoping review protocol, JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
Pelletier, Efficacy of povidone-iodine nasal and oral antiseptic preparations against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Ear Nose Throat J, doi:10.1177/0145561320957237
Peng, Xu, Li, Cheng, Zhou et al., Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice, Int J Oral Sci
Phelan, Katz, Lo, The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for Global Health Governance, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1097
Rahn, Adamietz, Boettcher, Schaefer, Reimer et al., Povidone-iodine to prevent mucositis in patients during antineoplastic radiochemotherapy, Dermatology
Rothe, Schunk, Sothmann, Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Sato, Miyake, Hazama, Omori, Povidone-iodine-induced cell death in cultured human epithelial HeLa cells and rat oral mucosal tissue, Drug Chem Toxicol
Scannapieco, Ho, Potential associations between chronic respiratory disease and periodontal disease: analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, J Periodontol, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467
Schreier, Erdos, Reimer, Konig, Konig et al., Molecular effects of povidone-iodine on relevant microorganisms: an electron-microscopic and biochemical study, Dermatology
Shankar, Saha, Jamir, Kakkar, Protection at Portal of Entry (PPE) with povidone iodine for COVID-19, Int J Med Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104724
Sriwilaijaroen, Wilairat, Hiramatsu, Mechanisms of the action of povidone-iodine against human and avian influenza A viruses: its effects on hemagglutination and sialidase activities, Virol J
Tang, Li, Eames, Chan, Ridgway, Factors involved in the aerosol transmission of infection and control of ventilation in healthcare premises, J Hosp Infect
Tessema, Frank, Bidra, SARS-CoV-2 viral inactivation using low dose povidone-iodine oral rinse -immediate application for the prosthodontic practice, J Prosthodont
To, Tsang, Yip, Consistent detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in saliva, Clin Infect Dis
Van Der Maarel-Wierink, Vanobbergen, Bronkhorst, Schols, De Baat, Oral health care and aspiration pneumonia in frail older people: a systematic literature review, Gerodontology
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
Wutzler, Sauerbrei, Klocking, Brogmann, Reimer, Virucidal activity and cytotoxicity of the liposomal formulation of povidone-iodine, Antiviral Res
Xu, Cui, Duan, Zhang, Zhou et al., Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV, Int J Oral Sci
Zhang, Liu, Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: a systematic review, J Med Virol
Zou, Ruan, Huang, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients, N Engl J Med
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop