Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All zinc studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Geographical distribution of trace elements (selenium, zinc, iron, copper) and case fatality rate of COVID-19: a national analysis across conterminous USA

Chen et al., Environmental Geochemistry and Health, doi:10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0
Jan 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of the geographical association between concentrations of selenium, zinc, iron, and copper in surface soils and COVID-19 case fatality rates, showing low zinc levels associated with higher case fatality rates.
Chen et al., 30 Jan 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 8 October, 2020 - 25 March, 2021.
This PaperZincAll
Geographical distribution of trace elements (selenium, zinc, iron, copper) and case fatality rate of COVID-19: a national analysis across conterminous USA
Ying Chen, Zheng Feei Ma, Dahai Yu, Zifei Jiang, Bo Wang, Linxi Yuan
Environmental Geochemistry and Health, doi:10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0
data of Se, Zn, Fe and Cu in surface soils (from the National Geochemical Survey), were mapped according to geographical location at the county level across conterminous USA. Characteristics of population, socio-demographics and residential environment by county were also collected. Seven cross-sectional sampling dates, with a 4-week interval between adjacent dates, constructed an observational investigation over 24 weeks from October 8, 2020, to March 25, 2021. Multivariable fractional (logit) outcome regression analyses were used to assess the association with adjustment for potential confounding factors. In USA counties with the lowest concentration of Zn, the case fatality rate of COVID-19 was the highest, after adjustment for other influencing factors. Associations of Se, Fe and Cu with case fatality rate of COVID-19 were either inconsistent over time or disappeared after adjustment for Zn. Our large study provides epidemiological evidence suggesting an association of Zn with COVID-19 severity, suggesting Zn deficiency should be avoided.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s10653-022-01204-0. by Rural-Urban Continuum Code) was considered for adjustment as a confounding factor in the final statistical modeling, as well as other county level variables including population characteristics and socialdemographics. Concentrations of trace elements at the county level were the only data from the National Geochemical Survey. Additional information, such as other parameters of samples that determine the bioavailability of the analyzed elements, was not available. Many other variables (such as food source and details of health care service), which differ among counties, were also not available, which became one obvious limitation of this study. We did not study the incidence rate (i.e., the percentage of cases among the total population) of COVID-19. As a disease of high contagion, the incidence of COVID-19 should be more related to population characteristics (e.g., age, comorbidity) and density, living environment (e.g., urban vs. rural area) and condition, ways of transportation, All authors contributed to the study design and interpretation of the data, and all authors approved the final version of the manuscript submitted for publication. Funding No funding was received for conducting this study. Declarations Conflicts of interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships..
References
Aggarwal, Lippi, Lavie, Henry, Sanchis-Gomar, Diabetes mellitus association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality: A pooled analysis, Journal of Diabetes, doi:10.1111/1753-0407.13091
Al-Salameh, Lanoix, Bennis, Andrejak, Brochot et al., The association between body mass index class and coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes, International Journal of Obesity, doi:10.1038/s41366-020-00721-1
Alexander, Tinkov, Strand, Alehagen, Skalny et al., Early nutritional interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for raising antiviral resistance against progressive COVID-19, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12082358
Alloway, Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, doi:10.1007/s10653-009-9255-4
Barocas, So-Armah, Cheng, Lioznov, Baum et al., Zinc deficiency and advanced liver fibrosis among HIV and hepatitis C co-infected anti-retroviral naïve persons with alcohol use in Russia, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0218852
Calder, Carr, Gombart, Eggersdorfer, Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12041181
Calder, Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19, BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085
Dinh, Cui, Huang, Tran, Wang et al., Selenium distribution in the Vol:. (1234567890) Chinese environment and its relationship with human health: A review, Environment International, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.035
Dong, Du, Gardner, An interactive webbased dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
Gashu, Nalivata, Amede, Ander, Bailey et al., The nutritional quality of cereals varies geospatially in Ethiopia and Malawi, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03559-3
Gonçalves, Gonçalves, Guarnieri, Risegato, Guimarães et al., Association Between Low Zinc Levels and Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by New Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, Nutrition in Clinical Practice: Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, doi:10.1002/ncp.10612
Heller, Sun, Hackler, Seelig, Seibert et al., Prediction of survival odds in COVID-19 by zinc, age and selenoprotein P as composite biomarker, Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764
Holman, Knighton, Kar, O'keefe, Curley et al., Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England: A population-based cohort study. The Lancet, Diabetes & Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30271-0
Im, Je, Baek, Chung, Kwon et al., Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19, International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Johnson, Fordyce, Rayman, Symposium on Geographical and geological influences on nutritio Factors controlling the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on health and nutrition Conference on 'Over and undernutrition challenges and approaches, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jothimani, Kailasam, Danielraj, Nallathambi, Ramachandran et al., COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency, International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014
Lassale, Gaye, Hamer, Gale, Batty, Ethnic disparities in hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The role of socioeconomic factors, mental health, and inflammatory and pro-inflammatory factors in a community-based cohort study, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.074
Liu, Zhao, Ma, Mu, Wang et al., Selenium (Se) plays a key role in the biological effects of some viruses: Implications for COVID-19, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1229
Shakoor, Feehan, Al Dhaheri, Ali, Platat et al., Immune-boosting role of vitamins D, C, E, zinc, selenium and fatty acids: Could they help against COVID-19?, Maturitas, doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.003
Smith, Smith, Horton, History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States, Geoscience Frontiers, doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.002
Sonnweber, Boehm, Sahanic, Pizzini, Aichner et al., Persisting alterations of iron homeostasis in COVID-19 are associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and poor patients' performance: A prospective observational cohort study, Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-020-01546-2
Steffan, Brevik, Burgess, Cerdà, The effect of soil on human health: An overview, European Journal of Soil Science, doi:10.1111/ejss.12451
Taneri, Gómez-Ochoa, Llanaj, Raguindin, Rojas et al., Anemia and iron metabolism in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis, European Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1007/s10654-020-00678-5
Thomas, Patel, Bittel, Wolski, Wang et al., Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369
Vogel-González, Talló-Parra, Herrera-Fernández, Pérez-Vilaró, Chillón et al., Low zinc levels at admission associates with poor clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020562
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Bacon, Bates et al., Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4
Wintergerst, Maggini, Hornig, Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical Conditions, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, doi:10.1159/000090495
Yao, Paguio, Dee, Tan, Moulick et al., The Minimal Effect of Zinc on the Survival of Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Observational Study, Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.082
Yasui, Yasui, Suzuki, Saitou, Yamamoto et al., Analysis of the predictive factors for a critical illness of COVID-19 during treatment -relationship between serum zinc level and critical illness of COVID-19, International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008
Yehia, Winegar, Fogel, Fakih, Ottenbacher et al., Association of Race With Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 92 US Hospitals, JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18039
Yuan, Ma, Zhang, Qin, Yin et al., Hair SE is a sensitive biomarker to monitor the effects of SE supplementation in elderly, Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-021-02674-6
Zhang, Taylor, Bennett, Saad, Rayman, Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095
Zhang, Wang, Li, Ye, Hou et al., A Spatial Ecology Study of Keshan Disease and Hair Selenium, Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-018-1495-7
Zhou, Chen, Ji, He, Xue, Increased serum levels of hepcidin and ferritin are associated with severity of COVID 19, Medical Science Monitor, doi:10.12659/MSM.926178
Zhou, Wang, Li, Li, Prevention of Keshan Disease by Selenium Supplementation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-018-1302-5
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu et al., Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 31]], 'date-time': '2022-01-31T05:41:14Z', 'timestamp': 1643607674770}, 'reference-count': 50, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-01-30T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1643500800000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-01-30T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1643500800000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['link.springer.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'short-container-title': ['Environ Geochem Health'], 'DOI': '10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-01-30T17:02:16Z', 'timestamp': 1643562136000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': [ 'Geographical distribution of trace elements (selenium, zinc, iron, copper) and case fatality ' 'rate of COVID-19: a national analysis across conterminous USA'], 'prefix': '10.1007', 'author': [ {'given': 'Ying', 'family': 'Chen', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Zheng Feei', 'family': 'Ma', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Dahai', 'family': 'Yu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Zifei', 'family': 'Jiang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Bo', 'family': 'Wang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1043-8933', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Linxi', 'family': 'Yuan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '297', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]]}, 'reference': [ { 'issue': '11', 'key': '1204_CR1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '851', 'DOI': '10.1111/1753-0407.13091', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'G Aggarwal', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Aggarwal, G., Lippi, G., Lavie, C. J., Henry, B. M., & Sanchis-Gomar, F. ' '(2020). Diabetes mellitus association with coronavirus disease 2019 ' '(COVID-19) severity and mortality: A pooled analysis. Journal of ' 'Diabetes, 12(11), 851–855. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13091', 'journal-title': 'Journal of Diabetes'}, { 'key': '1204_CR2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'J Alexander', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Alexander, J., Tinkov, A., Strand, T. A., Alehagen, U., Skalny, A., & ' 'Aaseth, J. (2020). Early nutritional interventions with Zinc, Selenium ' 'and Vitamin D for raising anti-viral resistance against progressive ' 'COVID-19. Nutrients,\xa012(8), 2358.\xa0' 'https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082358', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12082358'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '1204_CR3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '537', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10653-009-9255-4', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'BJ Alloway', 'year': '2009', 'unstructured': 'Alloway, B. J. (2009). Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in ' 'crops and humans. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 31(5), 537–548. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-009-9255-4', 'journal-title': 'Environmental Geochemistry and Health'}, { 'key': '1204_CR4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'A Al-Salameh', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Al-Salameh, A., Lanoix, J.-P., Bennis, Y., Andrejak, C., Brochot, E., ' 'Deschasse, G., et al. (2020). The association between body mass index ' 'class and coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes. International Journal of ' 'Obesity, 45(3), 700–705. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-00721-1', 'journal-title': 'International Journal of Obesity', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41366-020-00721-1'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '1204_CR5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0218852', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'JA Barocas', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Barocas, J. A., So-Armah, K., Cheng, D. M., Lioznov, D., Baum, M., ' 'Gallagher, K., et al. (2019). Zinc deficiency and advanced liver ' 'fibrosis among HIV and hepatitis C co-infected anti-retroviral naïve ' 'persons with alcohol use in Russia. PLoS ONE, 14(6), e0218852. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218852', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '74', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'PC Calder', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Calder, P. C. (2020). Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19. BMJ Nutrition, ' 'Prevention & Health, 3(1), 74–92. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health'}, { 'key': '1204_CR8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'PC Calder', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Calder, P. C., Carr, A. C., Gombart, A. F., & Eggersdorfer, M. (2020). ' 'Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an ' 'important factor to protect against viral infections. Nutrients, 12(4), ' '1181.\xa0https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041181', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12041181'}, { 'key': '1204_CR9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '294', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.035', 'volume': '112', 'author': 'QT Dinh', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Dinh, Q. T., Cui, Z., Huang, J., Tran, T. A. T., Wang, D., Yang, W., et ' 'al. (2018). Selenium distribution in the Chinese environment and its ' 'relationship with human health: A review. Environment International, ' '112, 294–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.035', 'journal-title': 'Environment International'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '1204_CR10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '533', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'E Dong', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Dong, E., Du, H., & Gardner, L. (2020). An interactive web-based ' 'dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. The Lancet Infectious ' 'Diseases, 20(5), 533–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1', 'journal-title': 'The Lancet Infectious Diseases'}, { 'key': '1204_CR13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'D Gashu', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Gashu, D., Nalivata, P. C., Amede, T., Ander, E. L., Bailey, E. H., ' 'Botoman, L., et al. (2021). The nutritional quality of cereals varies ' 'geospatially in Ethiopia and Malawi. Nature, 594(7861), 71–76. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03559-3', 'journal-title': 'Nature', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-021-03559-3'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '186', 'DOI': '10.1002/ncp.10612', 'volume': '36', 'author': 'TJM Gonçalves', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Gonçalves, T. J. M., Gonçalves, S. E. A. B., Guarnieri, A., Risegato, R. ' 'C., Guimarães, M. P., de Freitas, D. C., et al. (2021). Association ' 'Between Low Zinc Levels and Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress ' 'Syndrome by New Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Nutrition in Clinical Practice: ' 'Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral ' 'Nutrition, 36(1), 186–191. https://doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10612', 'journal-title': 'Nutrition in Clinical Practice: Official Publication of the American ' 'Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition'}, { 'key': '1204_CR15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'RA Heller', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Heller, R. A., Sun, Q., Hackler, J., Seelig, J., Seibert, L., Cherkezov, ' 'A., et al. (2021). Prediction of survival odds in COVID-19 by zinc, age ' 'and selenoprotein P as composite biomarker. Redox Biology, 38, 101764. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764', 'journal-title': 'Redox Biology'}, { 'issue': '10', 'key': '1204_CR16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '823', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30271-0', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'N Holman', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Holman, N., Knighton, P., Kar, P., O’Keefe, J., Curley, M., Weaver, A., ' 'et al. (2020). Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in people ' 'with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England: A population-based cohort ' 'study. The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(10), 823–833. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30271-0', 'journal-title': 'The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology'}, { 'key': '1204_CR17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '390', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018', 'volume': '100', 'author': 'JH Im', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Im, J. H., Je, Y. S., Baek, J., Chung, M.-H., Kwon, H. Y., & Lee, J.-S. ' '(2020). Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19. International ' 'Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the ' 'International Society for Infectious Diseases, 100, 390–393. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018', 'journal-title': 'International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official ' 'Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases'}, { 'key': '1204_CR18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Johnson, C. C., Fordyce, F. M., & Rayman, M. P. (2010). Symposium on ' 'Geographical and geological influences on nutritio Factors controlling ' 'the distribution of selenium in the environment and their impact on ' 'health and nutrition Conference on ‘Over and undernutrition challenges ' 'and approaches. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69(1), 119–132.', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0029665109991807'}, { 'key': '1204_CR19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '343', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014', 'volume': '100', 'author': 'D Jothimani', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Jothimani, D., Kailasam, E., Danielraj, S., Nallathambi, B., ' 'Ramachandran, H., Sekar, P., et al. (2020). COVID-19: Poor outcomes in ' 'patients with zinc deficiency. International Journal of Infectious ' 'Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for ' 'Infectious Diseases, 100, 343–349. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014', 'journal-title': 'International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official ' 'Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases'}, { 'key': '1204_CR20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '44', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.074', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'C Lassale', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Lassale, C., Gaye, B., Hamer, M., Gale, C. R., & Batty, G. D. (2020). ' 'Ethnic disparities in hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The role ' 'of socioeconomic factors, mental health, and inflammatory and ' 'pro-inflammatory factors in a community-based cohort study. Brain, ' 'Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 44–49. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.074', 'journal-title': 'Brain, Behavior, and Immunity'}, { 'key': '1204_CR21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.envres.2021.110984', 'volume': '196', 'author': 'Q Liu', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Liu, Q., Zhao, X., Ma, J., Mu, Y., Wang, Y., Yang, S., et al. (2021). ' 'Selenium (Se) plays a key role in the biological effects of some ' 'viruses: Implications for COVID-19. Environmental Research, 196, 110984. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110984', 'journal-title': 'Environmental Research'}, { 'key': '1204_CR22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'A Moghaddam', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Moghaddam, A., Heller, R. A., Sun, Q., Seelig, J., Cherkezov, A., ' 'Seibert, L., et al. (2020). Selenium deficiency is associated with ' 'mortality risk from COVID-19. Nutrients, 12(7), 2098. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072098', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12072098'}, { 'key': '1204_CR11', 'unstructured': 'Modern Epidemiology. (2020). ' 'https://www.ovid.com/product-details.4634.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2020.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'E32', 'DOI': '10.1002/ajh.26027', 'volume': '96', 'author': 'A Nai', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Nai, A., Lorè, N. I., Pagani, A., De Lorenzo, R., Di Modica, S., Saliu, ' 'F., et al. (2021). Hepcidin levels predict Covid-19 severity and ' 'mortality in a cohort of hospitalized Italian patients. American Journal ' 'of Hematology, 96(1), E32–E35. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26027', 'journal-title': 'American Journal of Hematology'}, { 'key': '1204_CR26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'SK Park', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Park, S. K., Sack, C., Sirén, M. J., & Hu, H. (2020). Environmental ' 'cadmium and mortality from influenza and pneumonia in US Adults. ' 'Environmental Health Perspectives,\xa0128(12), 127004.\xa0' 'https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7598', 'journal-title': 'Environmental Health Perspectives', 'DOI': '10.1289/EHP7598'}, { 'issue': '24', 'key': '1204_CR27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2617', 'DOI': '10.1080/10643389.2012.694330', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'IL Pepper', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Pepper, I. L. (2013). The Soil Health-Human Health Nexus. Critical ' 'Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 43(24), 2617–2652. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2012.694330', 'journal-title': 'Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '1204_CR28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '213', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12026-020-09145-5', 'volume': '68', 'author': 'C Perricone', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Perricone, C., Bartoloni, E., Bursi, R., Cafaro, G., Guidelli, G. M., ' 'Shoenfeld, Y., & Gerli, R. (2020). COVID-19 as part of the ' 'hyperferritinemic syndromes: The role of iron depletion therapy. ' 'Immunologic Research, 68(4), 213–224. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09145-5', 'journal-title': 'Immunologic Research'}, { 'key': '1204_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109814', 'volume': '142', 'author': 'S Raha', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Raha, S., Mallick, R., Basak, S., & Duttaroy, A. K. (2020). Is copper ' 'beneficial for COVID-19 patients? Medical Hypotheses, 142, 109814. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109814', 'journal-title': 'Medical Hypotheses'}, { 'key': '1204_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ' 'copper and reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 272), maintenance of ' 'the normal function of the nervous system (ID 1723), maintenance of the ' 'normal function of the immune system (ID 1725) and contribution to ' 'normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 1729) pursuant to Article 13(1) of ' 'Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. (n.d.). EFSA Journal, (2011;9(4):2079). ' 'https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2079', 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2079'}, { 'key': '1204_CR31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ' 'iron and formation of red blood cells and haemoglobin (ID 249, ID 1589), ' 'oxygen transport (ID 250, ID 254, ID 256), energy-yielding metabolism ' '(ID 251, ID 1589), function of the immune system (ID 252, ID 259), ' 'cognitive function (ID 253) and cell division (ID 368) pursuant to ' 'Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. (n.d.). EFSA Journal, ' '(2009; 7(9):1215). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1215', 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1215'}, { 'key': '1204_CR32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ' 'zinc and function of the immune system (ID 291, 1757), DNA synthesis and ' 'cell division (ID 292, 1759), protection of DNA, proteins and lipids ' 'from oxidative damage (ID 294, 1758), maintenance of bone (ID 295, ' '1756), cognitive function (ID 296), fertility and reproduction (ID 297, ' '300), reproductive development (ID 298), muscle function (ID 299), ' 'metabolism of fatty acids (ID 302), maintenance of joints (ID 305), ' 'function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 306), prostate function (ID ' '307), thyroid function (ID 308), acid-base metabolism (ID 360), vitamin ' 'A metabolism (ID 361) and maintenance of vision (ID 361) pursuant to ' 'Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. (n.d.). EFSA Journal, ' '(2009; 7(9):1229). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1229', 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1229'}, { 'key': '1204_CR24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ' 'copper and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage ' '(ID 263, 1726), function of the immune system (ID 264), maintenance of ' 'connective tissues (ID 265, 271, 1722), energy-yielding metabolism (ID ' '266), function of the nervous system (ID 267), maintenance of skin and ' 'hair pigmentation (ID 268, 1724), iron transport (ID 269, 270, 1727), ' 'cholesterol metabolism (ID 369), and glucose metabolism (ID 369) ' 'pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. (n.d.). EFSA ' 'Journal, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1211', 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1211'}, { 'key': '1204_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ' 'selenium and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ' 'damage (ID 277, 283, 286, 1289, 1290, 1291, 1293, 1751), function of the ' 'immune system (ID 278), thyroid function (ID 279, 282, 286, 1289, 1290, ' '1291, 1293), function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 280), prostate ' 'function (ID 284), cognitive function (ID 285) and spermatogenesis (ID ' '396) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. (n.d.). ' 'EFSA Journal, (2009; 7(9):1220). ' 'https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1220', 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1220'}, { 'key': '1204_CR33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.003', 'volume': '143', 'author': 'H Shakoor', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Shakoor, H., Feehan, J., Al Dhaheri, A. S., Ali, H. I., Platat, C., ' 'Ismail, L. C., et al. (2021). Immune-boosting role of vitamins D, C, E, ' 'zinc, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids: Could they help against ' 'COVID-19? Maturitas, 143, 1–9. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.003', 'journal-title': 'Maturitas'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '1204_CR34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '167', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.002', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'DB Smith', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Smith, D. B., Smith, S. M., & Horton, J. D. (2013). History and ' 'evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United ' 'States. Geoscience Frontiers, 4(2), 167–183. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.002', 'journal-title': 'Geoscience Frontiers'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '276', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12931-020-01546-2', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'T Sonnweber', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Sonnweber, T., Boehm, A., Sahanic, S., Pizzini, A., Aichner, M., ' 'Sonnweber, B., et al. (2020). Persisting alterations of iron homeostasis ' 'in COVID-19 are associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and poor ' 'patients’ performance: A prospective observational cohort study. ' 'Respiratory Research, 21(1), 276. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01546-2', 'journal-title': 'Respiratory Research'}, { 'key': '1204_CR6', 'unstructured': 'Stata Bookstore | Spatial Autoregressive Models Reference Manual, ' 'Release 16. (2020). ' 'https://www.stata.com/bookstore/spatial-autoregressive-models-reference-manual/. ' 'Accessed 2 Dec 2020.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '159', 'DOI': '10.1111/ejss.12451', 'volume': '69', 'author': 'JJ Steffan', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Steffan, J. J., Brevik, E. C., Burgess, L. C., & Cerdà, A. (2018). The ' 'effect of soil on human health: An overview. European Journal of Soil ' 'Science, 69(1), 159–171. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12451', 'journal-title': 'European Journal of Soil Science'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '1204_CR37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '763', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10654-020-00678-5', 'volume': '35', 'author': 'PE Taneri', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Taneri, P. E., Gómez-Ochoa, S. A., Llanaj, E., Raguindin, P. F., Rojas, ' 'L. Z., Roa-Díaz, Z. M., et al. (2020). Anemia and iron metabolism in ' 'COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of ' 'Epidemiology, 35(8), 763–773. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00678-5', 'journal-title': 'European Journal of Epidemiology'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '1204_CR38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'S Thomas', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Thomas, S., Patel, D., Bittel, B., Wolski, K., Wang, Q., Kumar, A., et ' 'al. (2021). Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation ' 'vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients ' 'With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. ' 'JAMA Network Open, 4(2), e210369. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Network Open'}, { 'key': '1204_CR12', 'unstructured': 'USDA ERS - Rural-Urban Continuum Codes. (2021). ' 'https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/rural-urban-continuum-codes.aspx. ' 'Accessed 11 April 2021.'}, { 'key': '1204_CR39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'M Vogel-González', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Vogel-González, M., Talló-Parra, M., Herrera-Fernández, V., ' 'Pérez-Vilaró, G., Chillón, M., Nogués, X., et al. (2021). Low zinc ' 'levels at admission associates with poor clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 ' 'Infection. Nutrients,\xa013(2), 562.\xa0' 'https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020562', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13020562'}, { 'issue': '7821', 'key': '1204_CR40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '430', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4', 'volume': '584', 'author': 'EJ Williamson', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Williamson, E. J., Walker, A. J., Bhaskaran, K., Bacon, S., Bates, C., ' 'Morton, C. E., et al. (2020). Factors associated with COVID-19-related ' 'death using OpenSAFELY. Nature, 584(7821), 430–436. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4', 'journal-title': 'Nature'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '1204_CR41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '85', 'DOI': '10.1159/000090495', 'volume': '50', 'author': 'ES Wintergerst', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Wintergerst, E. S., Maggini, S., & Hornig, D. H. (2006). ' 'Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical ' 'Conditions. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 50(2), 85–94. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1159/000090495', 'journal-title': 'Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '108', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.082', 'volume': '159', 'author': 'JS Yao', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Yao, J. S., Paguio, J. A., Dee, E. C., Tan, H. C., Moulick, A., Milazzo, ' 'C., et al. (2021). The Minimal Effect of Zinc on the Survival of ' 'Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Observational Study. Chest, ' '159(1), 108–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.082', 'journal-title': 'Chest'}, { 'key': '1204_CR43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '230', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008', 'volume': '100', 'author': 'Y Yasui', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Yasui, Y., Yasui, H., Suzuki, K., Saitou, T., Yamamoto, Y., Ishizaka, ' 'T., et al. (2020). Analysis of the predictive factors for a critical ' 'illness of COVID-19 during treatment - relationship between serum zinc ' 'level and critical illness of COVID-19. International Journal of ' 'Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International ' 'Society for Infectious Diseases, 100, 230–236. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008', 'journal-title': 'International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official ' 'Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '1204_CR44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18039', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'BR Yehia', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Yehia, B. R., Winegar, A., Fogel, R., Fakih, M., Ottenbacher, A., ' 'Jesser, C., et al. (2020). Association of Race With Mortality Among ' 'Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 92 US ' 'Hospitals. JAMA Network Open, 3(8), e2018039. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18039', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Network Open'}, { 'key': '1204_CR50', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '488', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-021-02674-6', 'volume': '200', 'author': 'L. Yuan', 'year': '2022', 'unstructured': 'Yuan, L., Ma, Z. F., Zhang, M., Qin, L., Yin, X., & Han, F. (2022). Hair ' 'SE is a sensitive biomarker to monitor the effects of SE supplementation ' 'in elderly. Biological Trace Element Research, 200, 88–496.\xa0' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02674-6', 'journal-title': 'Biological Trace Element Research'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '1204_CR45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '370', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-018-1495-7', 'volume': '189', 'author': 'X Zhang', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Zhang, X., Wang, T., Li, S., Ye, C., Hou, J., Li, Q., et al. (2019). A ' 'Spatial Ecology Study of Keshan Disease and Hair Selenium. Biological ' 'Trace Element Research, 189(2), 370–378. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1495-7', 'journal-title': 'Biological Trace Element Research'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '1204_CR46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1297', 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095', 'volume': '111', 'author': 'J Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhang, J., Taylor, E. W., Bennett, K., Saad, R., & Rayman, M. P. (2020). ' 'Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of ' 'COVID-19 cases in China. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ' '111(6), 1297–1299. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095', 'journal-title': 'The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1204_CR47', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '98', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-018-1302-5', 'volume': '186', 'author': 'H Zhou', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Zhou, H., Wang, T., Li, Q., & Li, D. (2018). Prevention of Keshan ' 'Disease by Selenium Supplementation: A Systematic Review and ' 'Meta-analysis. Biological Trace Element Research, 186(1), 98–105. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1302-5', 'journal-title': 'Biological Trace Element Research'}, { 'key': '1204_CR49', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Zhou, C., Chen, Y., Ji, Y., He, X., & Xue, D. (2020a). Increased serum ' 'levels of hepcidin and ferritin are associated with severity of COVID ' '19. Medical Science Monitor, 26, e926178. ' 'https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.926178', 'DOI': '10.12659/MSM.926178'}, { 'issue': '10229', 'key': '1204_CR48', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1054', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'F Zhou', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., et al. (2020b). ' 'Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with ' 'COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet (London, ' 'England), 395(10229), 1054–1062. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'journal-title': 'Lancet (london, England)'}], 'container-title': ['Environmental Geochemistry and Health'], 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-01-30T18:02:28Z', 'timestamp': 1643565748000}, 'score': 1, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]]}, 'references-count': 50, 'alternative-id': ['1204'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01204-0', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0269-4042', '1573-2983'], 'issn-type': [{'value': '0269-4042', 'type': 'print'}, {'value': '1573-2983', 'type': 'electronic'}], 'subject': [ 'Geochemistry and Petrology', 'General Environmental Science', 'Water Science and Technology', 'Environmental Chemistry', 'General Medicine', 'Environmental Engineering'], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 1, 30]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '29 July 2021', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '9 January 2022', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '30 January 2022', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, {'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Declarations'}}, { 'value': 'The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or ' 'personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported ' 'in this paper.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Conflicts of interest'}}, { 'value': 'This content has been made available to all.', 'name': 'free', 'label': 'Free to read'}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit