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Association of COVID-19 Infection with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Adults’ Population Aged over 65 Years Old

Pavlidou et al., Diseases, doi:10.3390/diseases11040165
Nov 2023  
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Case 42% Improvement Relative Risk Exercise for COVID-19  Pavlidou et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 5,197 patients in Greece Fewer cases with higher activity levels (p=0.0012) c19early.org Pavlidou et al., Diseases, November 2023 Favorsexercise Favorsinactivity 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Exercise for COVID-19
9th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 5,197 Greek adults over 65. After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with poor sleep, low physical activity, low Mediterranean diet adherence, living in urban areas, smoking, obesity, depression, anxiety, stress, and poor health-related quality of life.
Study covers exercise, diet, and sleep.
risk of case, 42.2% lower, OR 0.58, p = 0.001, high activity levels 902, low activity levels 4,295, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high activity levels, high vs. low/moderate IPAQ, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Pavlidou et al., 9 Nov 2023, retrospective, Greece, peer-reviewed, 14 authors. Contact: souzpapa@gmail.com (corresponding author), elen.p.pavl@gmail.com, g.antasouras@gmail.com, rd.olga.alexatou@gmail.com, xeniaggelakou@hotmail.com, fnsd21013@fns.aegean.gr, cgiaginis@aegean.gr, tvorvola@med.duth.gr, gtsourouflis@med.uoa.gr, aserdari@yahoo.com, mgrammat@uth.gr, kvadikol@med.duth.gr, antonios.dakanalis@unimib.it, dlefa@yahoo.gr.
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Association of COVID-19 Infection with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Adults’ Population Aged over 65 Years Old
Eleni Pavlidou, Sousana K Papadopoulou, Georgios Antasouras, Theofanis Vorvolakos, Olga Alexatou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Exakousti-Petroula Angelakou, Aspasia Serdari, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Evmorfia Psara, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Antonios Dakanalis, Nikolaos Lefantzis, Constantinos Giaginis
Diseases, doi:10.3390/diseases11040165
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unfavorable disruptions to daily living routines by exerting deleterious effects on several aspects of human mental and physical health and quality of life worldwide. The purpose of the current survey is to explore the potential association of COVID-19 infection with multiple sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors of community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey including 5197 older adults aged over 65 years old from 10 geographically diverse regions of Greece. Relevant questionnaires were used to record study the population sociodemographic factor, while anthropometric parameters were also measured. Validated questionnaires were also applied to assess several lifestyle factors such as depression, anxiety, stress, cognitive status, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, physical activity levels, and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence. Results: In multivariate regression analysis, COVID-19 infection was significantly, independently related with urban residence (p = 0.0107), regular smoking (p = 0.0218), overweight status and obesity (p = 0.0036), as well as abdominal obesity (p = 0.0008), higher risk of depression (p = 0.0027), anxiety (p = 0.0045), stress (p = 0.0038), inadequate sleep quality (p = 0.0108), lower physical activity levels (p = 0.0012), reduced MD compliance (p = 0.0009), and poor health-related quality of life (p = 0.0002). In univariate analysis, older adults' age (p = 0.0001), male gender (p = 0.0015), living alone (p = 0.0023), lower educational and economic level (p = 0.0175 and p = 0.0294, respectively), and cognition decline (p = 0.0032) were also related with the presence of COVID-19 infection; however, these associations were considerably attenuated at a non-significant level by adjustment for several confounders in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This is one of the few available studies supporting evidence that COVID-19 infection
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 10]], 'date-time': '2023-11-10T00:34:44Z', 'timestamp': 1699576484253}, 'reference-count': 112, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '4', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 9]], 'date-time': '2023-11-09T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1699488000000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unfavorable disruptions to daily living ' 'routines by exerting deleterious effects on several aspects of human mental and physical ' 'health and quality of life worldwide. The purpose of the current survey is to explore the ' 'potential association of COVID-19 infection with multiple sociodemographic, anthropometric, ' 'and lifestyle factors of community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional ' 'survey including 5197 older adults aged over 65 years old from 10 geographically diverse ' 'regions of Greece. Relevant questionnaires were used to record study the population ' 'sociodemographic factor, while anthropometric parameters were also measured. Validated ' 'questionnaires were also applied to assess several lifestyle factors such as depression, ' 'anxiety, stress, cognitive status, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, physical ' 'activity levels, and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence. Results: In multivariate regression ' 'analysis, COVID-19 infection was significantly, independently related with urban residence (p ' '= 0.0107), regular smoking (p = 0.0218), overweight status and obesity (p = 0.0036), as well ' 'as abdominal obesity (p = 0.0008), higher risk of depression (p = 0.0027), anxiety (p = ' '0.0045), stress (p = 0.0038), inadequate sleep quality (p = 0.0108), lower physical activity ' 'levels (p = 0.0012), reduced MD compliance (p = 0.0009), and poor health-related quality of ' 'life (p = 0.0002). In univariate analysis, older adults’ age (p = 0.0001), male gender (p = ' '0.0015), living alone (p = 0.0023), lower educational and economic level (p = 0.0175 and p = ' '0.0294, respectively), and cognition decline (p = 0.0032) were also related with the presence ' 'of COVID-19 infection; however, these associations were considerably attenuated at a ' 'non-significant level by adjustment for several confounders in multivariate analysis. ' 'Conclusions: This is one of the few available studies supporting evidence that COVID-19 ' 'infection may be associated with diverse sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle ' 'factors in an older adults’ population in Greece. This study highlights the strong demand to ' 'provide psychological and nutritional counselling and support to older adults diagnosed with ' 'COVID-19 infection in order to ameliorate disease symptoms and severity, emphasizing the ' 'adaptation of healthy dietary and lifestyle habits as preventing and supplementary ' 'therapeutic factors against COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/diseases11040165', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 9]], 'date-time': '2023-11-09T13:08:58Z', 'timestamp': 1699535338000}, 'page': '165', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Association of COVID-19 Infection with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors: A ' 'Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Adults’ Population Aged over 65 Years Old', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '11', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7764-3544', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Eleni', 'family': 'Pavlidou', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6408-6128', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Sousana K.', 'family': 'Papadopoulou', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, School of ' 'Health Sciences, International Hellenic University, 57400 ' 'Thessaloniki, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Georgios', 'family': 'Antasouras', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Theofanis', 'family': 'Vorvolakos', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, University Hospital of ' 'Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 ' 'Alexandoupoli, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Olga', 'family': 'Alexatou', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Gerasimos', 'family': 'Tsourouflis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Medical School, ' 'National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, ' 'Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Exakousti-Petroula', 'family': 'Angelakou', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Aspasia', 'family': 'Serdari', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Psychiatry and Child Psychiatry, University ' 'Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, ' '68100 Alexandroupoli, Greece'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4167-6595', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Maria G.', 'family': 'Grammatikopoulou', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Unit of Immunonutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Department of ' 'Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, School of Health Sciences, ' 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, ' 'Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Evmorfia', 'family': 'Psara', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}, { 'given': 'Konstantinos', 'family': 'Vadikolias', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Democritus ' 'University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupoli, Greece'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2328-3862', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Antonios', 'family': 'Dakanalis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Mental Health and Addiction, Fondazione IRCCS San ' 'Gerardo dei Tintori, 20900 Monza, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan Bicocca, ' 'Via Cadore 38, 20900 Monza, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Nikolaos', 'family': 'Lefantzis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical School, ' 'Attikon Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of ' 'Athens, Chaidari, 12462 Athens, Greece'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2878-4831', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Constantinos', 'family': 'Giaginis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Environment, ' 'University of Aegean, 81400 Myrina, Greece'}]}], 'member': '1968', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 9]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref_1', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization (2023, March 14). 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