Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 95% Improvement Relative Risk Case 42% Vitamin D  Karonova et al.  Prophylaxis  RCT Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 78 patients in Russia (October 2020 - February 2021) Fewer symptomatic cases with vitamin D (p=0.0024) Karonova et al., Nutrients, January 2022 Favors high dose Favors low dose

Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health Care Workers

Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030505
Jan 2022  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Small RCT in Russia with 45 high dose vitamin D patients (50,000IU/wk for 2 wks followed by 5,000IU/day) and 46 low dose patients (2,000IU/day), showing lower cases and lower symptomatic cases with high dose treatment.
risk of symptomatic case, 94.6% lower, RR 0.05, p = 0.002, treatment 0 of 38 (0.0%), control 9 of 40 (22.5%), NNT 4.4, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of case, 41.5% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.10, treatment 10 of 38 (26.3%), control 18 of 40 (45.0%), NNT 5.4.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Karonova et al., 24 Jan 2022, Randomized Controlled Trial, Russia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period 30 October, 2020 - 28 February, 2021.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health Care Workers
Tatiana L Karonova, Alena T Chernikova, Ksenia A Golovatyuk, Ekaterina S Bykova, William B Grant, Olga V Kalinina, Elena N Grineva, Evgeny V Shlyakhto
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030505
In the last 2 years, observational studies have shown that a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level affected the severity of infection with the novel coronavirus . This study aimed to analyze the potential effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection morbidity and severity in health care workers. Of 128 health care workers, 91 (consisting of 38 medical doctors (42%), 38 nurses (42%), and 15 medical attendants (16%)) were randomized into two groups receiving vitamin D supplementation. Participants of group I (n = 45) received water-soluble cholecalciferol at a dose of 50,000 IU/week for 2 consecutive weeks, followed by 5000 IU/day for the rest of the study. Participants of group II (n = 46) received water-soluble cholecalciferol at a dose of 2000 IU/day. For both groups, treatment lasted 3 months. Baseline serum 25(OH)D level in health care workers varied from 3.0 to 65.1 ng/mL (median, 17.7 (interquartile range, 12.2; 24.7) ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and normal vitamin D status were diagnosed in 60%, 30%, and 10%, respectively. Only 78 subjects completed the study. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with an increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but only intake of 5000 IU/day was accompanied by normalization of serum 25(OH)D level, which occurred in 53% of cases. Neither vitamin D intake nor vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency were associated with a decrease in SARS-CoV-2 morbidity (odds ratio = 2.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 7.12). However, subjects receiving high-dose vitamin D had only asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in 10 (26%) cases; at the same time, participants who received 2000 IU/day showed twice as many SARS-CoV-2 cases, with mild clinical features in half of them.
Annweiler, Beaudenon, Simon, Guenet, Otekpo et al., Group. Vitamin D supplementation prior to or during COVID-19 associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients: Extension phase of the GERIA-COVID study, J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105958
Azrielant, Shoenfeld, Vitamin D and the immune system, Isr. Med. Assoc. J
Bychinin, Klypa, Mandel, Andreichenko, Baklaushev et al., Low Circulating Vitamin D in Intensive Care Unit-Admitted COVID-19 Patients as a Predictor of Negative Outcomes, J. Nutr, doi:10.1093/jn/nxab107
Cantorna, Snyder, Lin, Yang, Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells, Nutrients
Carpagnano, Di Lecce, Quaranta, Zito, Buonamico et al., Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, J. Endocrinol. Investig, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x
Castillo, Entrenas Costa, Vaquero Barrios, Alcalá Díaz, López Miranda et al., Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study, J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751
Charoenngam, Holick, Immunologic effects of vitamin D on human health and disease, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12072097
Dissanayake, De Silva, Sumanatilleke, De Silva, Gamage et al., Prognostic and therapeutic role of vitamin D in COVID-19: Systematic review and meta-analysis, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab892
Faniyi, Lugg, Faustini, Webster, Duffy et al., Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers, Eur. Respir. J, doi:10.1183/13993003.04234-2020
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, Franch et al., Evidence That Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Gönen, Alaylıo Glu, Durcan, Özdemir, Şahin et al., Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047
Heaney, Davies, Chen, Holick, Barger-Lux, Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.1.204
Holick, Binkley, Bischoff-Ferrari, Gordon, Hanley et al., Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385
Jeffery, Burke, Mura, Zheng, Qureshi et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803217
Karonova, Andreeva, Golovatuk, Bykova, Simanenkova et al., Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
Karonova, Andreeva, Golovatuk, Bykova, Skybo et al., Inficirovannost SARS-CoV-2 v zavisimosti ot urovnya obespechennosti vitaminom D, Probl. Endokrinol, doi:10.14341/probl12820
Karonova, Andreeva, Nikitina, Belyaeva, Mokhova et al., Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the North-West region of Russia: A cross-sectional study, J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.03.026
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252
Kumar, Rathi, Haq, Wimalawansa, Sharma, Putative roles of vitamin D in modulating immune response and immunopathology associated with COVID-19, Virus Res, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198235
Lakkireddy, Gadiga, Malathi, Karra, Raju et al., Impact of Pulse D Therapy on the Inflammatory Markers in Patients with COVID-19, Sci. Rep
Lemire, Adams, Kermani-Arab, Bakke, Sakai et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte activity in vitro, J. Immunol
Macaya, Espejo Paeres, Valls, Fernandez-Ortiz, Gonzalez Del Castillo et al., Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection, Nutr. Hosp, doi:10.20960/nh.03193
Malek Mahdavi, A brief review of interplay between vitamin D and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Implications for a potential treatment for COVID-19, Rev. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.2119
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Golan Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: An Israeli population-based study, FEBS J, doi:10.1111/febs.15495
Mutambudzi, Niedzwiedz, Macdonald, Leyland, Mair et al., Occupation and risk of severe COVID-19: Prospective cohort study of 120,075 UK Biobank participants, Occup. Environ. Med, doi:10.1136/oemed-2020-106731
Oristrell, Oliva, Casado, Subirana, Domínguez et al., Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: A population-based, cohort study, J. Endocrinol. Investig, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Athar, Marchitelli et al., Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity, Clin. Endocrinol, doi:10.1111/cen.14276
Pizzini, Aichner, Sahanic, Bohm, Egger et al., Impact of Vitamin D Deficiency on COVID-19-A Prospective Analysis from the CovILD Registry, Nutrients
Rondanelli, Miccono, Lamburghini, Avanzato, Riva et al., Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds-Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds, Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med, doi:10.1155/2018/5813095
Sealedenvelope, None
Sowah, Fan, Dennett, Hagtvedt, Straube, Vitamin D levels and deficiency with different occupations: A systematic review, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4436-z
Sudheesh, Boaz, Degrees of Deficiency: Doctors and Vitamin D, Indian J. Community Med, doi:10.4103/0970-0218.199799
Turrubiates-Hernández, Sánchez-Zuno, González-Estevez, Hernández-Bello, Macedo-Ojeda et al., Potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of severe coronavirus disease 2019: An ally for Latin America (Review), Int. J. Mol. Med, doi:10.3892/ijmm.2021.4865
Wiersinga, Rhodesz, Cheng, Peacock, Prescott, Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12839
Yildiz, Senel, Kavurgaci, Ozturk, Ozturk, The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, Bratisl. Lek. Listy, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_119
Zemb, Bergman, Camargo, Jr, Cavalier et al., Vitamin D deficiency and the COVID-19 pandemic, J. Glob. Antimicrob. Resist, doi:10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop