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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  C19 studies: Vitamin D  Vitamin D   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 78% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 85% Severe case 67% Severe case (b) 53% c19early.org/d Karonova et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Favors vitamin D Favors control
Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
Karonova et al., Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
Aug 2021   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
risk of death, 77.8% lower, RR 0.22, p = 0.006, high D levels 8 of 96 (8.3%), low D levels 10 of 37 (27.0%), NNT 5.3, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >10ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of death, 84.8% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.06, high D levels 1 of 43 (2.3%), low D levels 17 of 90 (18.9%), NNT 6.0, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of severe case, 67.3% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.005, high D levels 12 of 96 (12.5%), low D levels 13 of 37 (35.1%), NNT 4.4, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >10ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of severe case, 53.2% lower, RR 0.47, p = 0.13, high D levels 4 of 43 (9.3%), low D levels 21 of 90 (23.3%), NNT 7.1, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
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Karonova et al., 29 Aug 2021, retrospective, Russia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period April 2020 - December 2020.
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Abstract: nutrients Article Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19 Tatiana L. Karonova 1, *, Alena T. Andreeva 1 , Ksenia A. Golovatuk 1 , Ekaterina S. Bykova 1 , Anna V. Simanenkova 1 , Maria A. Vashukova 2 , William B. Grant 3 and Evgeny V. Shlyakhto 1 1 2 3 * Clinical Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Endocrinology, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, 194021 Saint-Petersburg, Russia; arabicaa@gmail.com (A.T.A.); ksgolovatiuk@gmail.com (K.A.G.); bykova160718@gmail.com (E.S.B.); annasimanenkova@mail.ru (A.V.S.); e.shlyakhto@almazovcentre.ru (E.V.S.) Botkin Clinical Infectious Hospital, 195067 Saint-Petersburg, Russia; mavashukova@yahoo.com Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA; williamgrant08@comcast.net Correspondence: karonova@mail.ru; Tel.: +7-921-310-60-41 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021 Abstract: We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. Academic Editor: Andrea Fabbri Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; obesity; COVID-19   Citation: Karonova, T.L.; Andreeva, A.T.; Golovatuk, K.A.; Bykova, E.S.; Simanenkova, A.V.; Vashukova, M.A.; Grant, W.B.; Shlyakhto, E.V. Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3021. Received: 23 July 2021 Accepted: 26 August 2021 Published: 29 August 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
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