Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19

Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
Aug 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 78% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 85% Severe case 67% Severe case (b) 53% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Karonova et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 133 patients in Russia (April - December 2020) Lower mortality (p=0.006) and severe cases (p=0.005) c19early.org Karonova et al., Nutrients, August 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
This is the 95th of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of death, 77.8% lower, RR 0.22, p = 0.006, high D levels 8 of 96 (8.3%), low D levels 10 of 37 (27.0%), NNT 5.3, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >10ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of death, 84.8% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.06, high D levels 1 of 43 (2.3%), low D levels 17 of 90 (18.9%), NNT 6.0, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of severe case, 67.3% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.005, high D levels 12 of 96 (12.5%), low D levels 13 of 37 (35.1%), NNT 4.4, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >10ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
risk of severe case, 53.2% lower, RR 0.47, p = 0.13, high D levels 4 of 43 (9.3%), low D levels 21 of 90 (23.3%), NNT 7.1, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, logistic regression model 2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Karonova et al., 29 Aug 2021, retrospective, Russia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period April 2020 - December 2020.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
Tatiana L Karonova, Alena T Andreeva, Ksenia A Golovatuk, Ekaterina S Bykova, Anna V Simanenkova, Maria A Vashukova, William B Grant, Evgeny V Shlyakhto
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21-93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome.
References
Adams, Ren, Liu, Chun, Lagishetty et al., Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803736
Baeke, Korf, Overbergh, Van Etten, Verstuyf et al., Human T lymphocytes are direct targets of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the immune system, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.037
Beard, Bearden, Striker, Vitamin D and the anti-viral state, J. Clin. Virol, doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006
Campbell, Wu-Young, Lee, Rapid response to Elisabeth Mahase E: Covid-19: What treatments are being investigated?, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1252
Cannell, Vieth, Umhau, Holick, Grant et al., Epidemic influenza and vitamin D, Epidemiol. Infect, doi:10.1017/S0950268806007175
Cantorna, Snyder, Lin, Yang, Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells, Nutrients
Carter, Baranauskas, Fly, Considerations for obesity, vitamin D, and physical activity amid the COVID-19 pandemic, Obesity, doi:10.1002/oby.22838
Chua, Zheng, Obesity and COVID-19: The clash of two pandemics, Obes. Res. Clin. Pract, doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2020.06.003
Cohen-Lahav, Shany, Tobvin, Chaimovitz, Douvdevani, Vitamin D decreases NFkappaB activity by increasing IkappaBalpha levels, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant, doi:10.1093/ndt/gfi254
Cutolo, Paolino, Smith, Evidences for a protective role of vitamin D in COVID-19, RMD Open, doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001454
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, De Nicolo et al., 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12051359
Dediego, Nieto-Torres, Regla-Nava, Jimenez-Guardeno, Fernandez-Delgado et al., Inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated inflammation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirusinfected mice increases survival, J. Virol, doi:10.1128/JVI.02576-13
Fakhoury, Kvietys, Shakir, Shams, Grant et al., Lung-centric inflammation of COVID-19: Potential modulation by vitamin D, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072216
Ghasemian, Shamshirian, Heydari, Malekan, Alizadeh-Navaei et al., The role of vitamin D in the age of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Int. J. Clin. Pract, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675
Ginde, Liu, Camargo, Jr, Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004, Arch. Intern. Med, doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.604
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, Franch et al., Evidence That Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Han, Jones, Tangpricha, Brown, Brown et al., High Dose Vitamin D Administration in Ventilated Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Pilot Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, J. Clin. Transl. Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/j.jcte.2016.04.004
Hewison, Freeman, Hughes, Evans, Bland et al., Differential regulation of vitamin D receptor and its ligand in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.11.5382
Holick, Binkley, Bischoff-Ferrari, Gordon, Hanley et al., Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385
Hope-Simpson, The role of season in the epidemiology of influenza, J. Hyg, doi:10.1017/S0022172400068728
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Hussain, Bhowmik, Do Vale Moreira, COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108142
Infante, Buoso, Pieri, Lupisella, Nuccetelli et al., Low vitamin D status at admission as a risk factor for poor survival in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: An italian retrospective study, J. Am. Coll. Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580
Jeffery, Burke, Mura, Zheng, Qureshi et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803217
Karonova, Andreeva, Nikitina, Belyaeva, Mokhova et al., Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the North-West region of Russia: A cross-sectional study, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.03.026
Karonova, Vashukova, Gusev, Golovatuk, Grineva, Vitamin D deficiency as a factor for immunity stimulation and lower risk of acute respiratory infections and COVID-19, Arter. Hypertens, doi:10.18705/1607-419X-2020-26-3-295-303
Kumar, Arora, Sharma, Anikhindi, Bansal et al., Is diabetes mellitus associated with mortality and severity of COVID-19? A meta-analysis, Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.044
Laaksi, Vitamin D and respiratory infection in adults, Proc. Nutr. Soc, doi:10.1017/S0029665111003351
Lavie, Sanchis-Gomar, Henry, Lippi, COVID-19 and obesity: Links and risks, Expert Rev. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1080/17446651.2020.1767589
Lemire, Adams, Kermani-Arab, Bakke, Sakai et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte activity in vitro, J. Immunol
Liu, Stenger, Li, Wenzel, Tan et al., Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response, Science, doi:10.1126/science.1123933
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Mcelvaney, Mcevoy, Mcelvaney, Carroll, Murphy et al., Characterization of the Inflammatory Response to Severe COVID-19 Illness, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, doi:10.1164/rccm.202005-1583OC
Merad, Martin, Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: A key role for monocytes and macrophages, Nat. Rev. Immunol, doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0331-4
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Park, Kwon, Choi, Kang, Choe et al., Virus Isolation from the First Patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea, J. Korean Med. Sci, doi:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e84
Pham, Rahman, Majidi, Waterhouse, Neale, Acute Respiratory Tract Infection and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph16173020
Pigarova, Rozhinskaya, Belaya, Dzeranova, Karonova et al., Russian Association of endocrinologists recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in adults, Probl. Endocrinol, doi:10.14341/probl201662460-84
Rondanelli, Miccono, Lamburghini, Avanzato, Riva et al., Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds-Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds, Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med, doi:10.1155/2018/5813095
Sulli, Gotelli, Casabella, Paolino, Pizzorni et al., Vitamin D and lung outcomes in elderly COVID-19 patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717
Vankadari, Wilce, Emerging WuHan (COVID-19) coronavirus: Glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26, Emerg. Microbes Infect, doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1739565
Vasarhelyi, Satori, Olajos, Szabo, Beko, Low vitamin D levels among patients at Semmelweis University: Retrospective analysis during a one-year period, Orv. Hetil, doi:10.1556/OH.2011.29187
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
White, Nafilyan, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Related Deaths by Ethnic Group
White, Regulation of intracrine production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and its role in innate immune defense against infection, Arch. Biochem. Biophys, doi:10.1016/j.abb.2011.11.006
Yang, Zhang, Xu, Effect of Vitamin D on ACE2 and Vitamin D receptor expression in rats with LPS-induced acute lung injury, Chin. J. Emerg. Med, doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0282.2016.12.016
Zemb, Bergman, Camargo, Jr, Cavalier et al., Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 pandemic, Glob. Antimicrob. Resist, doi:10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006
Zhonghua, The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China, CMA.J, doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu et al., Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study, Lancet
Zneng, Chen, Yao, Huang, Tan et al., Dynamic changes in the immune response correlate with disease severity and outcomes during infection with SARS-CoV-2, Infect. Dis. Ther, doi:10.1007/s40121-021-00458-y
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 6]], 'date-time': '2024-03-06T06:24:44Z', 'timestamp': 1709706284967}, 'reference-count': 50, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '9', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 29]], 'date-time': '2021-08-29T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1630195200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and ' 'severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum ' '25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe ' 'disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ' 'ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D ' 'deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients ' 'with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ' 'ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course ' '(median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 ' '[25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged ' 'patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ' 'COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with ' 'increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ' 'ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have ' 'vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of ' 'COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13093021', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 31]], 'date-time': '2021-08-31T08:07:28Z', 'timestamp': 1630397248000}, 'page': '3021', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 19, 'title': 'Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '13', 'author': [ {'given': 'Tatiana L.', 'family': 'Karonova', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4878-6909', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Alena T.', 'family': 'Andreeva', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ksenia A.', 'family': 'Golovatuk', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ekaterina S.', 'family': 'Bykova', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3300-1280', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Anna V.', 'family': 'Simanenkova', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Maria A.', 'family': 'Vashukova', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1439-3285', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'William B.', 'family': 'Grant', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Evgeny V.', 'family': 'Shlyakhto', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '1968', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 29]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.18705/1607-419X-2020-26-3-295-303'}, {'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006'}, {'key': 'ref3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.037'}, {'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.170.11.5382'}, {'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/archinternmed.2008.604'}, {'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1155/2018/5813095'}, {'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.abb.2011.11.006'}, {'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.1123933'}, {'key': 'ref9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.0803736'}, {'key': 'ref10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0029665111003351'}, {'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1252'}, { 'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3032', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.134.5.3032', 'article-title': '1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte ' 'activity in vitro', 'volume': '134', 'author': 'Lemire', 'year': '1985', 'journal-title': 'J. Immunol.'}, {'key': 'ref13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu7043011'}, {'key': 'ref14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.0803217'}, {'key': 'ref15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001454'}, { 'key': 'ref16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0282.2016.12.016'}, {'key': 'ref17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/22221751.2020.1739565'}, {'key': 'ref18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1556/OH.2011.29187'}, {'key': 'ref19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5'}, { 'key': 'ref20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003'}, {'key': 'ref21'}, {'key': 'ref22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0022172400068728'}, {'key': 'ref23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0950268806007175'}, {'key': 'ref24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/17446651.2020.1767589'}, {'key': 'ref25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108142'}, {'key': 'ref26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12040988'}, {'key': 'ref27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12051359'}, {'key': 'ref28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.03.026'}, {'key': 'ref29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2011-0385'}, {'key': 'ref30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.14341/probl201662460-84'}, {'key': 'ref31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.i6583'}, {'key': 'ref32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijerph16173020'}, {'key': 'ref33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.1585'}, {'key': 'ref34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3'}, {'key': 'ref35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580'}, {'key': 'ref36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.orcp.2020.06.003'}, {'key': 'ref37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/oby.22838'}, {'key': 'ref38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.044'}, {'key': 'ref39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/ijcp.14675'}, {'key': 'ref40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1164/rccm.202005-1583OC'}, {'key': 'ref41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40121-021-00458-y'}, {'key': 'ref42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41577-020-0331-4'}, {'key': 'ref43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e84'}, {'key': 'ref44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13030717'}, {'key': 'ref45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13072216'}, {'key': 'ref46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12113361'}, {'key': 'ref47', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006'}, {'key': 'ref48', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ndt/gfi254'}, {'key': 'ref49', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.02576-13'}, {'key': 'ref50', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcte.2016.04.004'}], 'container-title': 'Nutrients', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/9/3021/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 8]], 'date-time': '2023-01-08T09:43:15Z', 'timestamp': 1673170995000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/9/3021'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 29]]}, 'references-count': 50, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '9', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 9]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['nu13093021'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093021', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2072-6643'], 'subject': ['Food Science', 'Nutrition and Dietetics'], 'container-title-short': 'Nutrients', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 29]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit