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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 66% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 17% Hospital stay >8 days 21% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Gönen et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 162 patients in Turkey Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.11) Gönen et al., Nutrients, November 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1

Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047
Nov 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that were deficient, showing significantly lower mortality compared to the retrospective study without treatment.
This is the 104th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 65.8% lower, RR 0.34, p = 0.62, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 1 of 80 (1.2%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 3 of 82 (3.7%), NNT 42, retrospective study.
risk of ICU admission, 16.9% lower, RR 0.83, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 4 of 77 (5.2%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 5 of 80 (6.2%), NNT 95, retrospective study.
hospital stay >8 days, 21.1% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.11, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 40 of 78 (51.3%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 52 of 80 (65.0%), NNT 7.3, retrospective study.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gönen et al., 12 Nov 2021, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 20 authors, dosage varies. Contact:,,,,
This PaperVitamin DAll
Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Mustafa Sait Gönen, Merve Alaylıoğlu, Emre Durcan, Yusuf Özdemir, Serdar Şahin, Dildar Konukoğlu, Okan Kadir Nohut, Seval Ürkmez, Berna Küçükece, İlker İnanç Balkan, H Volkan Kara, Şermin Börekçi, Hande Özkaya, Zekayi Kutlubay, Yalım Dikmen, Yılmaz Keskindemirci, Spyridon N Karras, Cedric Annweiler, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047
Background: We aimed to establish an acute treatment protocol to increase serum vitamin D, evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation, and reveal the potential mechanisms in COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 867 COVID-19 cases. Then, a prospective study was conducted, including 23 healthy individuals and 210 cases. A total of 163 cases had vitamin D supplementation, and 95 were followed for 14 days. Clinical outcomes, routine blood biomarkers, serum levels of vitamin D metabolism, and action mechanism-related parameters were evaluated. Results: Our treatment protocol increased the serum 25OHD levels significantly to above
Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by, and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY-CERRAHPASA, and the REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF HEALTH (Approval Number: Mustafa Sait Gönen-2020-05-06T19_51_05). Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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