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The Role of Folic Acid in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Intriguing Linkage under Investigation

Karakousis et al., Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm13030561
Mar 2023  
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Review of the potential benefit of vitamin B9 for COVID-19 and results of 3 clinical studies (currently there are 15 studies c19early.org).
See Scaglione et al. for another review covering vitamin B9 for COVID-19.
Karakousis et al., 21 Mar 2023, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: raniakotsiou@gmail.com (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin B9All
The Role of Folic Acid in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Intriguing Linkage under Investigation
Nikolaos D Karakousis, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Ourania S Kotsiou
Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm13030561
Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a life-threatening RNA virus that may cause an acute respiratory syndrome associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. Folic acid (FA), also known as folate, is an essential vitamin vital for human homeostasis, participating in many biochemical pathways, and its deficiency has been associated with viral infection vulnerability. In this review, we investigated the association between FA intake and SARS-CoV-2 infection, along with the existence of any potential impact of FA on the health outcome of patients suffering from this new viral infection. Methods: Studies included were patients' and in silico and molecular docking studies. Results: Data from in silico studies and molecular docking support that FA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host and viral replication, binding at essential residues. Accordingly, in patients' studies, a protective role of FA supplementation against SARS-CoV-2 infection is indicated. However, contradictory data from observational studies indicate that FA supplementation, often linked to deficits during systemic inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2, increases the risk of post-infection mortality. Conclusions: Future randomized controlled trial studies, including the FA pharmacological group, are needed to better understand the role of FA as a potential protective or mortality risk indicator in COVID-19 patients.
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Results: Data from in silico ' 'studies and molecular docking support that FA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host and ' 'viral replication, binding at essential residues. Accordingly, in patients’ studies, a ' 'protective role of FA supplementation against SARS-CoV-2 infection is indicated. However, ' 'contradictory data from observational studies indicate that FA supplementation, often linked ' 'to deficits during systemic inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2, increases the risk of ' 'post-infection mortality. 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Biophys. Res. Commun.', 'key': 'ref_1', 'volume': '538', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'ref_2', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization (2023, March 11). Coronavirus Dashboard. ' 'Available online: ' 'https://covid19.who.int/?adgroupsurvey={adgroupsurvey}&gclid=Cj0KCQiA6rCgBhDVARIsAK1kGPJShqhSazK69kE9YV6yPh6XwE3_iOpfk5OmWdkgKRVXM7xnA96GSD4aAjJyEALw_wcB.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.11.001', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2: Targeted managements and vaccine development', 'author': 'Bakhiet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '16', 'journal-title': 'Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.', 'key': 'ref_3', 'volume': '58', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104831', 'article-title': 'Mutations in SARS-CoV-2; Consequences in structure, function, and ' 'pathogenicity of the virus', 'author': 'Bakhshandeh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '104831', 'journal-title': 'Microb. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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