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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 66% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Gonzalez et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 164 patients in Argentina Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.046) Gonzalez et al., Revista de Nutrición .., Mar 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D on admission and disease severity in patients with COVID-19 in the Intensive Care Unit

Gonzalez et al., Revista de Nutrición Clínica y Metabolismo, doi:10.35454/rncm.v6n2.485
Mar 2023  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 164 ICU patients in Argentina, showing significantly higher mortality with severe vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 164th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 66.1% lower, OR 0.34, p = 0.046, high D levels (≥12ng/ml) 129, low D levels (<12ng/ml) 35, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥12ng/ml), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gonzalez et al., 13 Mar 2023, retrospective, Argentina, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Victoria Carolina González, Cayetano Galletti, Romina Álvarez Vizzoni, Yanina Saldivar, Nicolás Kessler, Francisco Irades, Estefanía Minoldo, Pablo Calcagno, Antonella Aliscioni, Ursula Zaya, Victoria Carolina González, Correo
Vitamina D a la admisión y severidad de la enfermedad en pacientes con COVID-19 en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Vitamin D on admission and disease severity in patients with COVID-19 in the Intensive Care Unit Vitamina D na admissão e gravidade da doença em pacientes com COVID-19 na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J Infect Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.021
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Alsafar, Grant, Hijazi, Uddin, Alkaabi et al., COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714
Amrein, Holl, Riedl, Christopher, Pachler, Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 on Hospital Length of Stay in Critically Ill Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency. The VITdAL-ICU Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2014.13204
Amrein, Zajic, Schnedl, Waltensdorfer, Fruhwald et al., Vitamin D status and its association with season, hospital and sepsis mortality in critical illness, Critical Care, doi:10.1186/cc13790
Aranow, Vitamin D and the Immune System, J Investig Med, doi:10.2310/jim.0b013e31821b8755
Arboleda, Vitamin D Supplementation: A Potential Approach for Coronavirus/COVID-19 Therapeutics?, Front. Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01523
Beardb, Beardena, Strikera, Vitamin D and the anti-viral state, J Clin Virol, doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006
Carpagnano, Lecce, Quaranta, Zito, Buonamico et al., Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x
Daneshkhah, Agrawal, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy et al., The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients, doi:10.1101/2020.04.08.20058578
Darling, Ahmadi, Ward, Harvey, Alves et al., Vitamin D status, body mass index, doi:10.1101/2020.04.29.20084277
Garvin, Alvarez, Miller, Prates, Walker et al., A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin storm, Elife, doi:10.7554/elife.59177
Ginde, Mansbach, Jr, Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Arch Intern Med, doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.560
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050
Herrera-Quintana, Gamarra-Morales, Vázquez-Lorente, Molina-López, Castaño-Pérez et al., Bad Prognosis in Critical Ill Patients with COVID-19 during Short-Term ICU Stay regarding Vitamin D Levels, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061988
Hewison, Antibacterial effects of vitamin D, Nat. Rev. Endocrinol, doi:10.1038/nrendo.2010.226
Janssen, Verhaar, Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/75.4.611
Lau, Majumder, Torabi, Saeg, Hoffman et al., Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in severe COVID-19, doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838
Loeb, Dang, Thiem, Hanabalan, Wang et al., Effect of Vitamin D supplementation to reduce respiratory infections in children and adolescents in Vietnam: A randomized controlled trial, Influenza Other Respir Viruses, doi:10.1111/irv.12615
Martineau, Jolliffe, Greenberg, Aloia, Bergman et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis, Health Technol Assess, doi:10.3310/hta23020
Mason, Thoughts on the alveolar phase of COVID-19, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol, doi:10.1152/ajplung.00126.2020
Mercola, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Quraishi, Mccarthy, Blum, Cobb, Camargo, Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels at Initiation of Care and Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Surgical Patients, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, doi:10.1177/0148607114566276
Rehan, Torday, Peleg, Gennaro, Vouros et al., 1Alpha,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3, a natural metabolite of 1alpha,25dihydroxy vitamin D3: Production and biological activity studies in pulmonary alveolar type II cells, Mol. Genet. Metab, doi:10.1016/s1096-7192(02)00022-7
Smet, Smet, Herroelen, Gryspeerdts, Martens, Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics, doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20079376
Sulli, Gotelli, Casabella, Paolino, Pizzorni et al., Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717
Urashima, Segawa, Okazaki, Kurihara, Wada, Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu et al., Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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