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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 35% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Frish et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 3,038 patients in Israel (February - December 2020) Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.0014) Frish et al., J. Clinical Medicine, Jun 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The Association of Weight Reduction and Other Variables after Bariatric Surgery with the Likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Frish et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12124054
Jun 2023  
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Retrospective 3,038 bariatric surgery patients in Israel, showing higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with vitamin D deficiency, and lower risk with physical activity.
This is the 181st of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
This study includes exercise and vitamin D.
risk of case, 35.5% lower, OR 0.65, p = 0.001, cutoff 20ng/mL, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Frish et al., 15 Jun 2023, retrospective, Israel, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period 1 February, 2020 - 31 December, 2020.
Contact: (corresponding author),,,,,,
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The Association of Weight Reduction and Other Variables after Bariatric Surgery with the Likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Noam Frish, Ariel Israel, Shai Ashkenazi, Shlomo Vinker, Ilan Green, Avivit Golan-Cohen, Eugene Merzon
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12124054
Background and aims: Although obesity has been confirmed as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity, the role of post-bariatric surgery (BS) variables and the infection is unclear. We, therefore, aimed to study comprehensively the relationship between the extent of weight reduction after surgery and other demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables with the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed, utilizing advanced tracking methodologies on the computerized database of a nation-wide health maintenance organization (HMO). The study population included all HMO members aged ≥18 years that had been tested at least once for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period and underwent BS at least one year before their testing. Results: Of the total 3038 individuals who underwent BS, 2697 (88.78%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 341 (11.22%) were negative. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the body mass index and the amount of weight reduction after the BS were not related to the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-operative low socioeconomic status (SES) and vitamin D3 deficiency were associated with significant and independent increased rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.03, p < 0.001; and OR 1.55, 95% CI, 1.18-2.02, p < 0.001; respectively). Post-operative physical activity > 3 times/week was associated with a significant and independent reduced rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 0.51, 95% CI, 0.35-0.73, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Post-BS vitamin D3 deficiency, SES, and physical activity, but not the amount of weight reduction, were significantly associated with the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Healthcare workers should be aware of these associations after BS and intervene accordingly.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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