Vitamin D as a predictor of negative outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: An observational study
Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy, doi:10.29390/001c.87408
Introduction Serum vitamin D deficiency is thought to be associated with worse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
Methods This single-centre observational study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and negative outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ukraine. We included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 confirmed by PCR and serum vitamin D measurement on admission. Patients were divided into two groups based on their serum vitamin D level: with adequate vitamin D (≥ 30 ng/ml) and with low vitamin D (<30 ng/ ml). Outcomes such as death and the need for respiratory support were recorded.
Results A total of 70 patients were included. The gender; severity of COVID-19; comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity; type of respiratory support, and the length of hospital stay did not differ in both groups. Patients with low serum vitamin D levels have higher C-reactive protein levels 26.14 mg/L [Q1, Q3: 16.61, 57.79] compared to another group 13.43 mg/L [Q1, Q3: 8.84, 27.58]. Low vitamin D level was associated with an increased risk of respiratory support need OR [Odds ratio] 2.925 [95% CI, 1.0839 to 7.8931]. However, after adjustment for age, gender, and common comorbidities, it did not remain significant. Vitamin D serum levels did not significantly differ in patients who died during hospitalization compared to those who survived.
Conclusion The role of vitamin D as a sole predictor of mortality and respiratory support appears to be overestimated. Low vitamin D levels may have a greater impact on COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized elderly patients with comorbidities.
COMPETING INTERESTS The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. FUNDING This study did not receive any specific grant from public, commercial or not-for-profit funding agencies.
CONTRIBUTORS The authors confirm their contribution to the paper: study conception and design: All patients and/or their representatives gave informed consent. For analysis, we used datasets which were properly anonymized.
AI STATEMENT The authors confirm no generative AI or AI-assisted technology was used to generate content.
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