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The association between vitamin D3 deficiency and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients

Arabi et al., Journal of Renal Injury Prevention, doi:10.34172/jrip.2022.32126
Jan 2023  
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 40% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 39% AKI 42% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Arabi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 69 patients in Iran Lower mortality (p=0.28) and ICU admission (p=0.2), not sig. Arabi et al., J. Renal Injury Prevention, Jan 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments.
Retrospective 69 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower vitamin D associated with higher mortality, ICU admission, and AKI in unadjusted results. The mean age of deficient patients was lower. Statistical significance is not reached for the binary comparison between the groups with levels <20 ng/mL and ≥20 ng/mL.
This is the 156th of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of death, 40.0% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.28, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 6 of 30 (20.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 13 of 39 (33.3%), NNT 7.5.
risk of ICU admission, 39.3% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.20, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 7 of 30 (23.3%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 15 of 39 (38.5%), NNT 6.6.
risk of AKI, 42.2% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.13, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 8 of 30 (26.7%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 18 of 39 (46.2%), NNT 5.1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Arabi et al., 22 Jan 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The association between vitamin D3 deficiency and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients
Mohsen Arabi, Hamid Reza Samimagham, Azadeh Moradkhani, Fatemeh Khajavi Mayvan, Sara Binaei, Ali Salimi Asl, Mitra Kazemi Jahromi
Journal of Renal Injury Prevention, doi:10.34172/jrip.2022.32126
In a cross-sectional study on 69 hospitalized patients in the ward with COVID-19, we found significant association between vitamin D deficiency and acute kidney injury. Moreover, there was relationship between vitamin D deficiency and mortality, ICU (intensive care unit) admission and hospital length of stay. These results suggest the correction of vitamin D deficiency may be beneficial to reduce acute kidney injury in patient with COVID-19.
Authors' contribution Conflicts of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Ethical issues At each research stage, we followed the principlesof the Declaration of Helsinki and the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health. Each participant signed the informed written consent form. This project was also confirmed by the Ethics Committee of the Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (ethical code #IR.HUMS. REC.1398.394). All participants signed the written informed consent. Besides, ethical issues (including plagiarism, data fabrication and double publication) have been completely observed by the authors.
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{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 2, 16]], 'date-time': '2023-02-16T05:44:14Z', 'timestamp': 1676526254403}, 'reference-count': 0, 'publisher': 'Maad Rayan Publishing Company', 'issue': '1', 'content-domain': {'domain': [''], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is a common clinical finding in the general ' 'population and hospitalized patients, including patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ' 'Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in more than 50% in ICU admitted patients. Objectives: There ' 'are few studies regarding AKI in COVID-19 patients, therefore we investigated the ' 'relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency and the occurrence of AKI in COVID-19 patients. ' 'Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 COVID-19 patients who ' 'were hospitalized in the ward for 12 months. Their serum vitamin D3 levels were measured in ' 'the first 24 hours of hospitalization in the ward. Patients were divided into three groups ' 'based on the serum levels of vitamin D3: &gt;50 ng/mL as normal, 20-50 ng/mL as insufficient ' 'and &lt;20 ng/mL as deficiency status. The patients were studied until the occurrence of ' 'acute renal injury or the occurrence of death. Results: Out of 69 hospitalized patients in ' 'the ward with COVID-19, there were 39 patients in group vitamin D3&lt;20 ng/mL, 21 patients ' 'in group vitamin D3 of 20-50ng/mL and 9 patients in group of vitamin D3&gt;50 ng/mL. The ' 'frequencies of AKI in groups of vitamin D3&lt;20 ng/mL, 20-50 ng/mL, and &gt;50 ng/mL were ' '46%, 28%, and 23%, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between AKI and our ' 'study groups (P=0.011). Furthermore, there was a significant association between our study ' 'groups and mortality (P=0.014), ICU admission (P=0.041) and hospital length of stay ' '(P=0.017). In another division in patients with different levels of vitamin D3 in the ' 'presence or absence of AKI, there were significant associations between patients with vitamin ' 'D3&lt;20 ng/mL and the presence of AKI and also with mortality (P=0.042), ICU admission ' '(P=0.024) and additionally with hospital length of stay (P=0.027). Conclusion: Our study ' 'showed significant association between vitamin D deficiency and AKI in ICU-admitted COVID-19 ' 'patients. Moreover, there were relationships between vitamin D deficiency and mortality, ICU ' 'admission and hospital length of stay. These results suggest the correction of vitamin D ' 'deficiency may be beneficial to reduce AKI in patient with COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.34172/jrip.2022.32126', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 2, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-02-15T21:15:40Z', 'timestamp': 1676495740000}, 'page': 'e32126', 'update-policy': '', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'The association between vitamin D3 deficiency and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients', 'prefix': '10.34172', 'volume': '12', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Mohsen', 'family': 'Arabi', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Family ' 'Medicine Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, ' 'Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Hamid Reza', 'family': 'Samimagham', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Research Development Center, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, ' 'Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Azadeh', 'family': 'Moradkhani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Research Development Center, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, ' 'Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Fatemeh', 'family': 'Khajavi Mayvan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Student Research Committe, Faculty of Medicie, Hormozgan ' 'University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Sara', 'family': 'Binaei', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Student Research Committe, Faculty of Medicie, Hormozgan ' 'University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Ali', 'family': 'Salimi Asl', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Student Research Committe, Faculty of Medicie, Hormozgan ' 'University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Mitra', 'family': 'Kazemi Jahromi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Hormozgan ' 'University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran'}]}], 'member': '20123', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 22]]}, 'container-title': 'Journal of Renal Injury Prevention', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 2, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-02-15T21:15:40Z', 'timestamp': 1676495740000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 22]]}, 'references-count': 0, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 24]]}}, 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2345-2781'], 'subject': ['Urology', 'Nephrology'], 'container-title-short': 'J Renal Inj Prev', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 1, 22]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Nickan Research Institute', 'name': 'journal_owner', 'label': 'Journal Owner'}, { 'value': 'Nickan Research Institute', 'name': 'journal_publisher', 'label': 'Journal Publisher'}, { 'value': '2022-09-03', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2022-11-19', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2023-01-22', 'order': 3, 'name': 'published', 'label': 'Published', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}]}
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