The Association Between Vitamin D Serum Level and COVID-19 Patients’ Outcomes in a Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Alzahrani et al.
, The Association Between Vitamin D Serum Level and COVID-19 Patients’ Outcomes in a Tertiary Center in Saudi..
, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.26266
Retrospective 545 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, without statistical significance.
risk of death, 42.5% lower, OR 0.57, p = 0.46, high D levels (≥25ng/mL) 179, low D levels (<25ng/mL) 78, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥25ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of ICU admission, 7.4% lower, OR 0.93, p = 0.80, high D levels (≥25ng/mL) 179, low D levels (<25ng/mL) 78, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥25ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alzahrani et al., 23 Jun 2022, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, mean age 54.3, 9 authors, study period March 2020 - July 2021.
Abstract: Open Access Original
The Association Between Vitamin D Serum Level
and COVID-19 Patients’ Outcomes in a Tertiary
Center in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cohort
Review began 05/31/2022
Review ended 06/19/2022
© Copyright 2022
Alzahrani et al. This is an open access
article distributed under the terms of the
Mahmoud A. Alzahrani 1 , Faisal Almalki 2 , Ayman Aljohani 2 , Bassam Alharbi 2 , Bandar Alsulami 2 , Ahmed
Alhaddad 2 , Alaa Althubaiti 3 , Bader Khawaji 4 , Fayssal Farahat 5
Creative Commons Attribution License CCBY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
1. Specialized Polyclinic Primary Health Care Department, National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA), Jeddah, SAU 2.
College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Medicine, Jeddah, SAU 3.
College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, SAU 4. Basic Medical Sciences,
College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Medicine, Jeddah, SAU 5.
Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, SAU
Corresponding author: Ayman Aljohani, email@example.com
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the risk for immune-mediated inflammatory reactions in
various respiratory infections. Our study investigated the association between vitamin D deficiency and
coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients’ outcomes. We included 545 patients who were admitted to a
tertiary center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from March 2020 to July 2021 with a vitamin D serum test result at the
time of infection or prior to disease onset. The data were extracted retrospectively using a data collection
sheet. Our primary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. The cut-off
values for vitamin D were <25, 25-49, and 50-250 for deficient, suboptimal, and optimal levels respectively.
Our result revealed that there is no association between vitamin D serum levels deficiency and ICU
admission (OR=1.08, p=0.75) or in-hospital mortality (OR=1.74, p=0.97). ICU admission and in-hospital
mortality percentages in patients with vitamin D deficiency were 14.1% and 6.4%, respectively. In
comparison, percentages for patients with optimal levels were 16.67% and 6.15% for ICU admission and inhospital mortality, respectively. Smoking was not associated with ICU admission (p=0.05) or in-hospital
mortality (p=0.38). Our study does not support a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19
patients’ outcomes. Future studies should be directed toward conducting randomized clinical trials to
determine whether vitamin D has an effective role in reducing COVID-19 severity.
Categories: Family/General Practice, Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease
Keywords: severe covid-19, family medicine, infectious disease, vitamin-d deficiency, covid 19
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