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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 39% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 31% ICU admission 42% Vitamin D for COVID-19  AlKhafaji et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 203 patients in Saudi Arabia (January - August 2021) Lower mortality (p=0.5) and ventilation (p=0.51), not sig. AlKhafaji et al., Int. J. General Medi.., Jan 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The Impact of Vitamin D Level on the Severity and Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 Disease

AlKhafaji et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/ijgm.s346169
Jan 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 203 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing no significant difference in outcomes with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 117th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of death, 38.6% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.50, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 2 of 76 (2.6%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 13 of 127 (10.2%), inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 31.0% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.51, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 2 of 76 (2.6%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 13 of 127 (10.2%), inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of ICU admission, 41.8% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.20, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 2 of 76 (2.6%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 13 of 127 (10.2%), inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
AlKhafaji et al., 31 Jan 2022, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, mean age 56.8, 16 authors, study period January 2021 - August 2021. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
The Impact of Vitamin D Level on the Severity and Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 Disease
Dania Alkhafaji, Reem Al Argan, Waleed Albaker, Abdulmohsen Al Elq, Mohammed Al-Hariri, Abir Alsaid, Abrar Alwaheed, Safi Alqatari, Alaa Alzaki, Sara Alwarthan, Fatima Alrubaish, Haya Alguaimi, Fatema Ismaeel, Nidaa Alsaeed, Zainab Alelq, Fatma Zainuddin
International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/ijgm.s346169
The world is experiencing a life-altering and extraordinary situation in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There are limited data and controversies regarding the relationship between vitamin D (Vit D) status and COVID-19 disease. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the association between Vit D levels and the severity or outcomes of COVID-19 disease. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia from January to August 2021. All the admitted patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection were distributed into three groups depending on their Vit D levels: normal, insufficiency, and deficiency. For the three groups, demographic data, and laboratory investigations as well as data regarding the severity of COVID-19 were collected and analysed. Results: A total of 203 diagnosed cases of COVID-19 were included in this study. The Vit D level was normal (>30) in 31 (15.3%) cases, insufficient in 45 (22.2%) cases and deficient in 127 (62.6%) cases. Among the included cases, 58 (28.6%) were critical cases, 109 (53.7%) were severe and 36 (17.7%) had a mild-moderate COVID-19 infection. The most prevalent comorbidity of patients was diabetes mellitus 117 (57.6%), followed by hypertension 70 (34.5%), cardiac disease 24 (11.8%), chronic kidney disease 19 (9.4%) and chronic respiratory disease in 17 (8.4%) cases. Importantly, the current study did not detect any significant association between Vit D status and COVID-19 severity (p-value=0.371) or outcomes (hospital stay, intensive care units admission, ventilation, and mortality rate) (p-value > 0.05), even after adjusting the statistical model for the confounders. Conclusion: In hospital settings, Vit D levels are not associated with the severity or outcomes of COVID-19 disease. Further, well-designed studies are required to determine whether Vit D status provides protective effects against worse COVID-19 outcomes.
Author Contributions All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. International Journal of General Medicine Dovepress
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