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Propolis: Its Role and Efficacy in Human Health and Diseases

Zullkiflee et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules27186120
Sep 2022  
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Review of propolis for health and diseases including COVID-19. Propolis contains many bioactive compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes that have exhibited antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties in studies. Authors suggest these active ingredients in propolis may help prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection by interfering with viral entry and replication. Propolis has also been shown to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to severe COVID-19. Some clinical trials have reported that propolis supplementation was safe and beneficial for COVID-19 patients.
Reviews covering propolis for COVID-19 include Dilokthornsakul, Kustiawan, Ożarowski, Zulhendri, Zullkiflee.
Zullkiflee et al., 19 Sep 2022, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: anwar.usman@ubd.edu.bn (corresponding author).
This PaperPropolisAll
Propolis: Its Role and Efficacy in Human Health and Diseases
Nadzirah Zullkiflee, Hussein Taha, Anwar Usman
Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules27186120
With technological advancements in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries, numerous research studies have focused on the propolis produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) and Apis mellifera honeybees as alternative complementary medicines for the potential treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Propolis can be found in tropical and subtropical forests throughout the world. The composition of phytochemical constituents in propolis varies depending on the bee species, geographical location, botanical source, and environmental conditions. Typically, propolis contains lipid, beeswax, essential oils, pollen, and organic components. The latter include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, polyphenols, terpenes, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, amino acids, and aromatic acids. The biologically active constituents of propolis, which include countless organic compounds such as artepillin C, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, chrysin, galangin, kaempferol, luteolin, genistein, naringin, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, and quercetin, have a broad spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstruct pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract-related diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, as well as neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and immuno-inflammatory agents. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of recent studies on the role of propolis, its constituents, its biologically active compounds, and their efficacy in the medicinal and pharmaceutical treatment of chronic diseases.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.U.; resources, H.T. and N.Z.; data curation, N.Z.; writing-original draft preparation, N.Z. and A.U.; writing-review and editing, N.Z. and A.U.; supervision, A.U. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/molecules27186120', 'ISSN': ['1420-3049'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27186120', 'abstract': '<jats:p>With technological advancements in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries, ' 'numerous research studies have focused on the propolis produced by stingless bees (Meliponini ' 'tribe) and Apis mellifera honeybees as alternative complementary medicines for the potential ' 'treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Propolis can be found in tropical and ' 'subtropical forests throughout the world. The composition of phytochemical constituents in ' 'propolis varies depending on the bee species, geographical location, botanical source, and ' 'environmental conditions. Typically, propolis contains lipid, beeswax, essential oils, ' 'pollen, and organic components. The latter include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, ' 'polyphenols, terpenes, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, amino acids, and aromatic acids. The ' 'biologically active constituents of propolis, which include countless organic compounds such ' 'as artepillin C, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, chrysin, galangin, ' 'kaempferol, luteolin, genistein, naringin, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, and quercetin, have a ' 'broad spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, ' 'anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstruct pulmonary ' 'disorders, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract-related diseases, gastrointestinal ' 'disorders, as well as neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and immuno-inflammatory agents. ' 'Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of recent studies on the role of propolis, ' 'its constituents, its biologically active compounds, and their efficacy in the medicinal and ' 'pharmaceutical treatment of chronic diseases.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['molecules27186120'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5527-7061', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Zullkiflee', 'given': 'Nadzirah', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3272-4313', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Taha', 'given': 'Hussein', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8199-2931', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Usman', 'given': 'Anwar', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Molecules', 'container-title-short': 'Molecules', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 20]], 'date-time': '2022-09-20T08:28:55Z', 'timestamp': 1663662535000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 2, 19]], 'date-time': '2023-02-19T17:23:35Z', 'timestamp': 1676827415000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 10]], 'date-time': '2024-04-10T08:33:14Z', 'timestamp': 1712737994314}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 40, 'issue': '18', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 19]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '18', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 19]], 'date-time': '2022-09-19T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1663545600000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/18/6120/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '6120', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 19]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 19]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ {'DOI': '10.1038/s41573-020-00114-z', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref1'}, {'DOI': '10.1155/2018/9837863', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref2'}, {'DOI': '10.1155/2013/308249', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref3'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s13592-021-00889-z', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref4'}, { 'article-title': 'Chapted 13—The role of honey and propolis in the treatment of infected ' 'wounds', 'author': 'Pascoal', 'first-page': '221', 'key': 'ref5', 'series-title': 'Microbiology for Surgical Infections Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment', 'year': '2014'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.013', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref6'}, {'DOI': '10.1051/apido:19950202', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref7'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/insects12080719', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref8'}, {'DOI': '10.1155/2013/964149', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref9'}, { 'article-title': 'How do bees prevent hive infections? 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