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Potential effects of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A systematic review of in silico and clinical studies

Dilokthornsakul et al., Journal of Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.joim.2022.01.008
Mar 2022  
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Review of potential effects of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Authors systematically reviewed in silico and clinical studies on propolis or bee products against SARS-CoV-2. In silico studies showed compounds like rutin, glyasperin A, 3′-methoxydaidzin, and octatriacontyl pentafluoropropionate could interact with target proteins involved in viral entry and replication. Clinical evidence was limited but showed propolis or honey may improve symptoms and decrease viral clearance time in COVID-19 patients when used as adjuvant therapy.
Reviews covering propolis for COVID-19 include Dilokthornsakul, Kustiawan, Ożarowski, Zulhendri, Zullkiflee.
Dilokthornsakul et al., 31 Mar 2022, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact: piyamethd@nu.ac.th.
This PaperPropolisAll
Potential effects of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A systematic review of in silico and clinical studies
Witoo Dilokthornsakul, Ramanya Kosiyaporn, Rattanamanee Wuttipongwaragon, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul
Journal of Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.joim.2022.01.008
Background: Propolis and honey have been studied as alternative treatments for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 . However, no study has yet summarized the full body of evidence for the use of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Objective: This study systematically reviews the mechanisms of propolis and honey against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and current evidence for the use of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Search strategy: A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library from their inceptions to April 2021. Inclusion criteria: Studies that evaluated the effect of propolis or bee products against SARS-CoV-2 using in silico methods, clinical studies, case reports and case series were included. Data extraction and analysis: A standardized data extraction form was used, and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize study results concerning the use of propolis or honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment and their potential mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 15 studies were included. Nine studies were in silico studies, two studies were case reports, one study was a case series, and three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In silico studies, using molecular docking methods, showed that compounds in propolis could interact with several target proteins of SARS-CoV-2, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the main protease enzyme, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike protein. Propolis may have a positive effect for clinical improvement in mild and moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients, according to case reports and case series. The included RCTs indicated that propolis or honey could probably improve clinical symptoms and decrease viral clearance time when they were used as adjuvant therapy to standard of care. Conclusion: In silico studies showed that compounds from propolis could interact with target proteins of SARS-CoV-2, interfering with viral entry and viral RNA replication, while clinical studies revealed that propolis and honey could probably improve clinical COVID-19 symptoms and decrease viral clearance time. However, clinical evidence is limited by the small number of studies and small sample sizes. Future clinical studies are warranted.
Authors' contribution All authors designed the study's hypothesis and protocol. RK and RW were responsible for data collection. All authors participated in data analysis. All authors also participated in data interpretation, manuscript preparation and review, table and figure preparation, and the scientific discussion of the data. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2022.01.008.
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'2007'}], 'reference-count': 41, 'references-count': 41, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2095496422000085'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Potential effects of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A systematic ' 'review of in silico and clinical studies', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'volume': '20'}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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