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The Effects of Propolis on Viral Respiratory Diseases

Ożarowski et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28010359
Jan 2023  
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Review of the antiviral effects of propolis against respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2, influenza, parainfluenza, and rhinoviruses. Authors note that propolis extracts have shown activity against these viruses through mechanisms like inhibiting viral entry and replication. Most research has focused recently on SARS-CoV-2, with studies indicating propolis can block spike protein binding and reduce viral load. Both propolis extracts and compounds like apigenin, caffeic acid and quercetin demonstrate antiviral effects in vitro and in vivo. Though clinical trials are limited, some show reduced COVID-19 symptoms or hospitalization time with propolis treatment. Additionally, propolis may help manage COVID-19 risk factors like diabetes and inflammation. Authors suggest propolis is a promising option for prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections.
Reviews covering propolis for COVID-19 include Dilokthornsakul, Kustiawan, Ożarowski, Zulhendri, Zullkiflee.
Ożarowski et al., 1 Jan 2023, peer-reviewed, 2 authors. Contact: (corresponding author).
This PaperPropolisAll
The Effects of Propolis on Viral Respiratory Diseases
Marcin Ożarowski, Tomasz M Karpiński
Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28010359
Propolis remains an interesting source of natural chemical compounds that show, among others, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Due to the growing incidence of respiratory tract infections caused by various pathogenic viruses, complementary methods of prevention and therapy supporting pharmacotherapy are constantly being sought out. The properties of propolis may be important in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract diseases caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, influenza viruses, the parainfluenza virus and rhinoviruses. One of the main challenges in recent years has been severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing COVID-19. Recently, an increasing number of studies are focusing on the activity of various propolis preparations against SARS-CoV-2 as an adjuvant treatment for this infection. Propolis has shown a few key mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 action such as: the inhibition of the interaction of the S1 spike protein and ACE-2 protein; decreasing the replication of viruses by diminishing the synthesis of RNA transcripts in cells; decreasing the particles of coronaviruses. The anti-viral effect is observed not only with extracts but also with the single biologically active compounds found in propolis (e.g., apigenin, caffeic acid, chrysin, kaempferol, quercetin). Moreover, propolis is effective in the treatment of hyperglycemia, which increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The aim of the literature review was to summarize recent studies from the PubMed database evaluating the antiviral activity of propolis extracts in terms of prevention and the therapy of respiratory tract diseases (in vitro, in vivo, clinical trials). Based upon this review, it was found that in recent years studies have focused mainly on the assessment of the effectiveness of propolis and its chemical components against COVID-19. Propolis exerts widespectrum antimicrobial activities; thus, propolis extracts can be an effective option in the prevention and treatment of co-infections associated with diseases of the respiratory tract.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Sample Availability: Not applicable.
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