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The close association of micronutrients with COVID-19

Zhang et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28629
Mar 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Case-control study with 149 healthy controls and 214 COVID-19 patients in China, showing significantly lower serum vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D was found to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19. A logistic regression model incorporating vitamin D along with magnesium, copper, vitamin B5, pyridoxic acid, and calcium demonstrated strong predictive performance in differentiating COVID-19 patients, including mild cases, from healthy individuals (AUC 0.901).
Zhang et al., 27 Mar 2024, China, peer-reviewed, 13 authors, study period October 2022 - March 2023. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
The close association of micronutrients with COVID-19
Aimin Zhang, Yue Yin, Jiashu Tian, Xialin Wang, Zhihong Yue, Lin Pei, Li Liu, Li Qin, Mei Jia, Hui Wang, Qingwei Ma, Wei-Bo Gao, Lin-Lin Cao
Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28629
Objectives: The present study was conducted to explore the performance of micronutrients in the prediction and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 . Methods: This is an observational case-control study. 149 normal controls (NCs) and 214 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, and inorganic elements were detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. A logistic regression model based on six micronutrients were constructed using DxAI platform. Results: Many micronutrients were dysregulated in COVID-19 compared to normal control (NC). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxic acid, PA) were significantly independent risk factors for COVID-19. The logistic regression model consisted of 25(OH)D3, Mg, Cu, Ca, vitamin B5 (VB5) and PA was developed, and displayed a strong discriminative capability to differentiate COVID-19 patients from NC individuals [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) = 0.901]. In addition, the model had great predictive ability in discriminating mild/normal COVID-19 patients from NC individuals (AUROC = 0.883). Conclusions: Our study showed that micronutrients were associated with COVID-19, and our logistic regression model based on six micronutrients has potential in clinical management of COVID-19, and will be useful for prediction of COVID-19 and screening of high-risk population.
Ethics declarations This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethical Review Committee of Peking University People's Hospital, with the approval number: 2023PHB218-001 and 2023PHB156-001. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. CRediT authorship contribution statement Declaration of competing interest The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests:Hui Wang reports financial support was provided by Beijing Major Epidemic Prevention and Control Key Specialty Project-Medical Laboratory Excellence Project (2022). Wei-bo Gao reports financial support was provided by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (L222118). Lin-Lin Cao reports financial support was provided by Peking University People's Hospital Scientific Research Development Funds (RDJP2022-57). If there are other authors, they declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Supplementary data to this article can be found online at
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