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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case, supplementation 69% treatment Improvement Relative Risk Case, levels 76% levels Vitamin D for COVID-19  Şengül et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 318 patients in Turkey (March 2020 - December 2021) Fewer cases with vitamin D (p=0.0042) c19early.org Şengül et al., Cukurova Anestezi ve Ce.., Dec 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Covid-19 In Pregnant Women, Does Vitamin D Supplementation Impact Results? A Comprehensive Study

Şengül et al., Cukurova Anestezi ve Cerrahi Bilimler Dergisi, doi:10.36516/jocass.1185181
Dec 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 318 pregnant women, 54 COVID+ and 264 healthy controls, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with vitamin D supplementation, and with higher vitamin D levels.
This is the 105th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
risk of case, 68.5% lower, OR 0.31, p = 0.004, treatment 8 of 54 (14.8%) cases, 94 of 264 (35.6%) controls, NNT 7.4, case control OR.
risk of case, 75.6% lower, OR 0.24, p < 0.001, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 7 of 54 (13.0%) cases, 100 of 264 (37.9%) controls, NNT 6.4, case control OR, outcome based on serum levels.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Şengül et al., 31 Dec 2022, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period March 2020 - December 2021, dosage not specified. Contact: dr.mustafasengul@gmail.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Covid-19 In Pregnant Women, Does Vitamin D Supplementation Impact Results? A Comprehensive Study
Mustafa Şengül, Halime Şen Selim, Serhat Şen, Huriye Erbak Yilmaz
Cukurova Anestezi ve Cerrahi Bilimler Dergisi, doi:10.36516/jocass.1185181
Aim: Low vitamin D levels were related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia. Vitamin D might therefore protect against symptoms of the Covid 19. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between the acquisition and course of Covid 19 and serum vitamin D levels and investigate the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 318 pregnant women admitted to our tertiary clinic to give birth between March 2020 and December 2021. All cases were tested for Covid 19 via nasopharyngeal swab. Fifty-four patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (Group 1) were matched with 264 consecutive healthy controls (Group 2). 25 OH D Vitamin levels were measured and compared between the two groups, along with the frequency of vitamin D supplementation. Results: Group 1 showed significantly low mean 25 OH D levels, compared to Group 2 (10,22 ± 7,10 (3-37) ng/ml vs. 16,63 ± 10,80 (3,40-48,90) ng/ml, p = 0,000). Sixteen point seven % of controls and 3,7% of cases had normal Vitamin D levels (>30 ng/mL); the difference was also statistically significant (p=0,005). The frequency of vitamin D supplementation was also detected higher in controls than those with positive SARS-CoV-2 (35,6% vs. 14,8%, p=0,003). Conclusions: Sustaining adequate levels of Vitamin D may positively impact protection against Covid 19 during pregnancy. In this context, Vitamin D supplementation should be considered for the pregnant population, particularly in settings where profound vitamin D deficiency is common.
Author contributions All authors read and approved the final manuscript. M. Sengül: Project development, Data Collection, data analyzing Manuscript writing H. Sen Selim: Data collection, data analyzing, manuscript writing S. Sen: Data analyzing, manuscript writing H.Erbak Yılmaz: Data Collection K.Kurt: Project development Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical approval Informed consent was obtained from pregnant women both for herself and the newborn. This study was approved by the ethical committee with date 21.09.2021 and number 408 of Izmir Katip Celebi Univesity, Faculty of Medicine and the Turkish Ministry of Health.
References
Aygün, Vitamin D can prevent multi-organ damage caused by COVID-19 infection, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol
Bahat, Talmac, Bestel, Micronutrients in COVID-19 Positive Pregnancies, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.10609
Bassatne, Basbous, Chakhtoura, The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): a systematic review and meta-analysis, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753
Capobianco, Covid-19 in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Euro. J. Obstet. Gynecol. again. biol, doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.07.034
Charoenngam, Holick, Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12072097
Ferrer-Sánchez, Díaz-Goicoechea, Mayoral-Cesar, Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965
Holick, Binkley, Bischoff-Ferrari, Endocrine Society Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
Jovanovich, Ginde, Holmen, Vitamin D level and risk of community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu6062196
Liu, Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological perspective, J Reprod. immunol, doi:10.1016/j.jri.2020.103122
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Mascio, Khalil, Saccone, Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. I am, J Obstet Gynecol, doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100107
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Salmon, Sorge, Pneumonia in pregnant women: exploring this high-risk complication and its links to preterm birth
Schmitt, Labdouni, Soulimani, Oxidative stress status and vitamin D levels of asymptomatic to mild symptomatic COVID-19 infections during the third trimester of pregnancy: A retrospective study in Metz, France, Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27606
Seven, Gunduz, Correlation between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, doi:10.1080/14767058.2021.2005564
Sinaci, Ocal, Yetiskin, Impact of vitamin D on the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Smaha, Kužma, Jackuliak, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Significantly Decreases in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia during the First 48 Hours after Hospital Admission, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14122362
Tekin, Yassa, Birol, Vitamin D status is not associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19 in pregnant women, European Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1007/s00394-021-02709-7
Teymoori-Rad, Shokri, Salimi, Interaction between vitamin D and viral infections, Rev Med Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.2032
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics and key lessons of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Zhu, Zhang, A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019, N. Engl. J.Med, doi:10.1056/nejmoa2001017
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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 ' 'Mar 26;19(7):3965. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19073965.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': 'ref19', 'unstructured': 'Sinaci S, Ocal D F,Yucel Yetiskin D F, et al.Impact of vitamin D on ' 'the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control study. J Steroid ' 'Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Oct;213:105964. doi: ' '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.27606', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': 'ref20', 'unstructured': '.Schmitt G, Labdouni S, Soulimani R, et al. Oxidative stress status and ' 'vitamin D levels of asymptomatic to mild symptomatic COVID-19 infections ' 'during the third trimester of pregnancy: A retrospective study in Metz, ' 'France.Journal of Medical Virology.21 January 2022. doi: ' '10.1002/jmv.27606.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00394-021-02709-7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': 'ref21', 'unstructured': 'Tekin A B, Yassa M, Birol P, et al. 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