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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 95% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 78% Rachman et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 191 patients in Indonesia (Oct 2021 - Feb 2022) Lower mortality (p=0.043) and severe cases (p=0.011) Rachman et al., F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.132214.1 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Impact of vitamin D deficiency in relation to the clinical outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Rachman et al., F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.132214.1
Rachman et al., Impact of vitamin D deficiency in relation to the clinical outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.132214.1
Apr 2023   Source   PDF  
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Prospective study of hospitalized patients in Indonesia, showing higher risk of mortality and severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 171st of 175 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 18 vigintillion).
risk of death, 94.8% lower, RR 0.05, p = 0.04, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 0 of 45 (0.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 14 of 146 (9.6%), NNT 10, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of severe case, 77.6% lower, RR 0.22, p = 0.01, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 2 of 45 (4.4%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 29 of 146 (19.9%), NNT 6.5.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rachman et al., 13 Apr 2023, prospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period October 2021 - February 2022.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
AI generated summary. Current AI models can provide useful summaries for non-experts, but may be inaccurate and have limited ability to analyze larger context such as the entire evidence base for vitamin D.

Vitamin D deficiency was associated with COVID-19 mortality and severity.

  • Vitamin D deficiency is a global health crisis, affecting over a billion people.
  • Vitamin D has been shown to be effective in preventing and reducing the severity of viral respiratory diseases, including influenza.
  • However, the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 infection remains controversial.
  • This study aimed to analyze the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
  • The study found that COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency were significantly more likely to have cardiovascular disease, mortality, more severe COVID-19 cases, and the use of mechanical ventilation.
  • Lower serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with an increased number of comorbidities, the severity of COVID-19, and the use of mechanical ventilation.
  • 7.3% of patients with deficient vitamin D levels died. However, there was no mortality for patients with either sufficient or insufficient vitamin D levels.
  • The study concluded that COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency were significantly associated with having cardiovascular disease, mortality, more severe COVID-19 cases, and the used of mechanical ventilation.

The study's findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for severe COVID-19.

Impact of vitamin D deficiency in relation to the clinical outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Andhika Rachman, Rizky Rahmaniyah, Andi Khomeini, Anggraini Iriani
F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.132214.1
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging public health problem that affects more than one billion people worldwide. Vitamin D has been shown to be effective in preventing and reducing the severity of viral respiratory diseases, including influenza. However, the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 infection remains controversial. This study aimed to analyze the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among hospitalized COVID-19 patients at two COVID-19 referral hospitals in Indonesia from October 2021 until February 2022. Results: The median serum 25(OH)D level in 191 hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 13.6 [IQR=10.98] ng/mL. The serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower among COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency who had cardiovascular disease (p-value=0.04), the use of a ventilator (p-value=0.004), more severe COVID-19 cases (p-value=0.047), and mortality (p-value=0.002). Furthermore, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly different between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 cases (p-value=0.019). Serum 25(OH)D levels in moderate and severe COVID-19 cases were significantly different (p-value=0.031). Lower serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with an increased number of comorbidities (p-value=0.03), the severity of COVID-19 (p-value=0.002), and the use of mechanical ventilation (p-value=0.032). Mortality was found in 7.3% of patients with deficient vitamin D levels. However, patients with either sufficient or insufficient vitamin D levels did not develop mortality. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency were significantly associated with having cardiovascular disease, mortality, more severe COVID-19 cases, and the used of mechanical ventilation. Lower serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with an increased Open Peer Review Approval Status AWAITING PEER REVIEW Any reports and responses or comments on the article can be found at the end of the article.
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