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Prognostic Factors for Predicting Post-COVID-19 Condition in Patients With COVID-19 in an Outpatient Setting

Choi et al., Journal of Korean Medical Science, doi:10.3346/jkms.2024.39.e23
Jan 2024  
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Recovery 49% Improvement Relative Risk PASC 68% Hospitalization 26% unadjusted Vitamin D for COVID-19  Choi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 257 patients in South Korea (April - December 2022) Improved recovery (p=0.002) and lower PASC (p=0.001) Choi et al., J. Korean Medical Science, Jan 2024 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Retrospective 257 outpatients with mild COVID-19 in South Korea showing vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) associated with post-COVID condition and longer symptom duration.
This is the 192nd of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
risk of no recovery, 48.9% lower, HR 0.51, p = 0.002, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 99, low D levels (<20ng/mL) 67, adjusted per study, multivariable.
risk of PASC, 68.4% lower, HR 0.32, p = 0.001, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 99, low D levels (<20ng/mL) 67, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), multivariable.
risk of hospitalization, 25.6% lower, RR 0.74, p = 0.48, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 11 of 99 (11.1%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 10 of 67 (14.9%), NNT 26, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Choi et al., 2 Jan 2024, retrospective, South Korea, peer-reviewed, mean age 55.7, 6 authors, study period April 2022 - December 2022. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
Prognostic Factors for Predicting Post-COVID-19 Condition in Patients With COVID-19 in an Outpatient Setting
Myeong Geun Choi, Young Woong Joo, Min-Ho Kim, Sojung Park, Yune-Young Shin, MD Eun Mi Chun
Journal of Korean Medical Science, doi:10.3346/jkms.2024.39.e23
Background: Although data on post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) conditions are extensive, the prognostic factors affecting symptom duration in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are currently not well known. We aimed to investigate the various prognostic factors affecting symptom duration among outpatients with COVID-19. Methods: Data were analyzed from 257 patients who were diagnosed with mild COVID-19 and visited the 'post-COVID-19 outpatient clinic' between April and December 2022 after a mandatory isolation period. The symptom duration was measured from diagnosis to symptom resolution. Laboratory and pulmonary function test results from their first visit were collected. Results: The mean age of patients was 55.7 years, and the median symptom duration was 57 days. The development of post-COVID-19 conditions (> 12 weeks) were significantly correlated with not using antiviral drugs, leukocytosis (white blood cell > 10,000/µL), lower 25(OH)D 3 levels, forced vital capacity (FVC) < 90% predicted, and presence of dyspnea and anxiety/depression. Additionally, in multivariable Cox regression analysis, not using antiviral drugs, lower 25(OH)D 3 levels, and having dyspnea were poor prognostic factors for longer symptom duration. Particularly, vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) and not using antivirals during the acute phase were independent poor prognostic factors for both post-COVID-19 condition and longer symptom duration. Conclusion: The non-use of antivirals, lower 25(OH)D 3 levels, leukocytosis, FVC < 90% predicted, and the presence of dyspnea and anxiety/depression symptoms could be useful prognostic factors for predicting post-COVID-19 condition in outpatients with COVID-19. We suggest that the use of antiviral agents during the acute phase and vitamin D supplements might help reduce COVID-19 symptom duration.
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Supplementary Table 1 The incidence of clinical symptoms of patients with COVID- 4 Baseline characteristics of the study population at the time of their first visit to the outpatient department according to Vit D deficiency Click here to view Supplementary Table 5 Baseline characteristics of the study population at the time of their first visit to the outpatient department according to use of antiviral agent at acute phase of COVID-19 Click here to view
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