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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 36% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Arboleda et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D + vitamin C reduce COVID-19 infections? Prospective study of 823 patients in Colombia Fewer cases with vitamin D + vitamin C (p=0.027) Arboleda et al., Behavioural Public Po.., Mar 2024 Favors vitamin D Favors control

EAST framework to promote adherence to nutritional supplementation: a strategy to mitigate COVID-19 within health workers

Arboleda et al., Behavioural Public Policy, doi:10.1017/bpp.2024.11
Mar 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of 1,063 health workers in Colombia showing lower COVID-19 infection rates with adherence to a vitamin D and C supplementation plan, however very limited baseline information is provided for the adherent vs. non-adherent groups, and no adjusted results are provided. Higher risk patients had a much higher adherence rate, suggesting that the efficacy of treatment may be significantly higher than observed.
This is the 120th COVID-19 controlled study for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers vitamin C and vitamin D.
risk of case, 35.7% lower, RR 0.64, p = 0.03, treatment 26 of 214 (12.1%), control 115 of 609 (18.9%), NNT 15.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Arboleda et al., 13 Mar 2024, prospective, Colombia, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, dosage 5,000IU daily, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with vitamin C) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
EAST framework to promote adherence to nutritional supplementation: a strategy to mitigate COVID-19 within health workers
John Arboleda, Luis F Jaramillo, Alexander Velez, Juan E Restrepo
Behavioural Public Policy, doi:10.1017/bpp.2024.11
Cooperative and caring behaviors are key drivers of human social progress, especially during catastrophes or pandemic events. While COVID-19 pandemics was arriving to Colombia in absence of any approved therapeutic strategy or vaccine, and based on evidence from other viral diseases, we anticipated to hypothesize the protective role of some nutritional supplements such as Vitamin D and C against SARS-CoV2. Therefore, for health workers, we proposed a voluntarily nutritional supplementation plan to fortify their immune system aiming to prevent or mitigate eventual COVID-19 infection and disease. Using the behavioral EAST framework, all our health workers (n = 1,063) were invited via email to participate voluntarily in a supplementation strategy for a period of 3 months. 77.4% accepted participation, and among them, we identified a group with optimal adherence to the proposed supplementation plan (20%) and a predominant group with no adherence at all (57.29%). Adherence seemed to be associated to a risk perception bias that was predominant in female workers and those workers performing in working areas with higher risk of infection. Of importance, adherence to the supplementation strategy was associated to a lower percentage of COVID-19 diagnostics (12%) as compared with that observed in non-adherence participants (19%). Moreover, the sustained adherence during the time of intervention seemed to promote adoption of this target behavior, as up to 35% of the adherent participants remained attached (on their own) to the supplementation habit, 3 months after the end of the intervention. All these data show the potential relevance of EAST frameworks as tools to trigger health care and altruistic behaviors to avoid the spread of pandemic diseases. In line with other authors, our observations suggest that nutritional vitamin D and C supplementation could mitigate the risk of COVID-19, highlighting the behavioral and biological relevance of this type of interventions during emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases.
Competing interest. All authors participating in the development of this study, data analysis and elaboration of the manuscript declare no conflict of interest.
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