Vitamin D status in hospitalized COVID‑19 patients is associated with disease severity and IL-5 production
Background There are many studies on relationship between vitamin D and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while the results are matters of debate and the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study to assess the impact of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on the severity of disease in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and identify potential mechanisms.
Methods A total of 399 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were recruited from three centers between December 19, 2022, and February 1, 2023.
Results Levels of 25(OH)D were signi cantly lower in the deceased group than other three groups (P < 0.05). The levels of 25(OH)D (odds ratio = 0.986, 95% con dence interval: 0.973-0.998, P = 0.024) and IL-5 (odds ratio = 1.239, 95% con dence interval: 1.104-1.391, P = 0.04) were independent risk factors for the severity of COVID-19 disease upon admission. Serum 25(OH)D levels combined with IL-5 levels and eosinophil (Eos) counts were able to predict the mortality of patients with COVID-19. Circulating 25(OH)D status correlated negatively with the expression of IL-5 (r=-0.262, P < 0.001) and was positively linked with CD8 + T cell counts (r=-0.121, P < 0.05) in patients with COVID-19.
Conclusions Most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D de ciency and a severe de ciency is associated with fatal outcomes. This study found that the serum 25(OH)D status in COVID-19 patients correlated negatively with the expression of IL-5. The speci c mechanism for this relationship is worth further exploration.
Most COVID-19 patients have evidence of vitamin D de ciency and severe de ciency is associated with an increased risk of severe disease and mortality. The current study found that 25(OH)D levels combined with IL-5 levels and Eos counts could serve as predictors of early COVID-19-related lung injury and mortality. This study found that the levels of 25(OH)D in the serum of patients with COVID-19 correlated negatively with the expression of IL-5, however, the speci c mechanism requires further exploration.
Supplementary Material Supplementary Material is not available with this version Figures
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