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Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approach

Papadimitriou et al., World J. Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111]
May 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Country analysis showing negative correlations between population vitamin D level and severe cases and death (but not with cases overall). Authors conclude that higher vitamin D levels may protect from severe cases and death, even more so in the elderly.
Papadimitriou et al., 25 May 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approach
MD, MSc Dimitrios T Papadimitriou, Alexandros K Vassaras, Michael F Holick
World Journal of Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111
BACKGROUND Vitamin D population status may have possible unappreciated consequences to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Α significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity and inpatient mortality from COVID-19 disease has recently been shown, while a recent study has claimed lower COVID-19 cases in European countries with a better vitamin D status. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] was identified as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, and administration of 0.532 mg (21280 IU) of calcifediol or 25(OH)D, followed by 0.266 mg on days 3 and 7 and then weekly until discharge or intensive care unit admission significantly reduced the need for intensive care unit treatment. AIM To elucidate the role of vitamin D European population status in the COVID-19 pandemic, data from the Worldometer were analyzed.
Research motivation Vitamin D population status may indeed have possible unappreciated consequences to the COVID-19 pandemic, a hypothesis that needed to be further elucidated. Research objectives Following an ecological integrative approach, we examined the associations between published representative and standardized European population vitamin D data and the Worldometer COVID-19 data at two completely different time points of the first wave of this pandemic. If any sustained correlations were to be found, they would be an indication of a truthful association, even though they could not prove causality. Research methods Using linear regression, we explored the correlation between published representative and standardized population vitamin D concentrations and the number of total cases/million (M), recovered/M, deaths/M and serious-critically ill/M from COVID-19 for 26 European countries populated > 4 M. Life expectancy (LE) was also analyzed with semi-parametric regression. Weighted analysis of variance/analysis of covariance evaluated serious-critical/M and deaths/M by the vitamin D population status: deficient < 50, insufficient: 50-62.5, mildly insufficient > 62.5-75 and sufficient > 75 nmol/L, while controlling for LE for deaths/M. Statistical analyses were performed in XLSTAT LIFE SCIENCE and R (SemiPar library). Research results No correlation was found between population vitamin D concentrations and the total cases-recovered/M, but negative..
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