Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ NEWS2 score 77% Improvement Relative Risk Oxygen therapy 92% Oxygen time 70% Hospitalization time 13% Viral clearance 10% Vitamin C  Hellou et al.  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with vitamin C + combined treatments beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 50 patients in Israel (May - December 2020) Improved recovery (p=0.042) and lower oxygen therapy (p=0.01) Hellou et al., J. Cellular and Molecul.., May 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Effect of ArtemiC in patients with COVID-19: A Phase II prospective study

Hellou et al., Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, doi:10.1111/jcmm.17337, NCT04382040
May 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
RCT 50 hospitalized patients in Israel, 33 treated with curcumin, vitamin C, artemisinin, and frankincense oral spray, showing improved recovery with treatment.
Viral load measured by PCR may not accurately reflect infectious virus measured by viral culture. Porter show that viral load early in infection was correlated with infectious virus, but viral load late in infection could be high even with low or undetectable infectious virus. Assessing viral load later in infection may underestimate reductions in infectious virus with treatment.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: combined treatments may contribute more to the effect seen.
This study includes vitamin C and curcumin.
relative NEWS2 score, 76.7% better, RR 0.23, p = 0.04, treatment mean 0.52 (±0.67) n=33, control mean 2.23 (±3.2) n=17, day 15.
risk of oxygen therapy, 92.2% lower, RR 0.08, p = 0.01, treatment 0 of 33 (0.0%), control 4 of 17 (23.5%), NNT 4.2, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), day 15.
oxygen time, 69.7% lower, relative time 0.30, p = 0.17, treatment mean 2.3 (±1.4) n=33, control mean 7.6 (±4.6) n=17.
hospitalization time, 13.3% lower, relative time 0.87, p = 0.92, treatment mean 7.8 (±7.3) n=33, control mean 9.0 (±8.0) n=17.
risk of no viral clearance, 9.8% lower, RR 0.90, p = 0.77, treatment 14 of 33 (42.4%), control 8 of 17 (47.1%), NNT 22, day 15.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hellou et al., 19 May 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Israel, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 8 May, 2020 - 21 December, 2020, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with curcumin, artemisinin, and frankincense) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial NCT04382040 (history).
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin CAll
Effect of ArtemiC in patients with COVID‐19: A Phase II prospective study
Elias Hellou, Jameel Mohsin, Ameer Elemy, Fahed Hakim, Mona Mustafa‐hellou, Shadi Hamoud
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, doi:10.1111/jcmm.17337
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which initially emerged in Wuhan-South-eastern China in 2019, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among vulnerable patients. 1 This grim situation is mainly attributed to the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced injury to vital organs, particularly in aged patients with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, heart failure and respiratory diseases. 2, 3 Critically ill cases are characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock, as well as multiple organ dysfunction or failure. [2] [3] [4] Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor serves as the binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 in human host cells, exploiting its high affinity to this enzyme to inflict remarkable damage to key target organs. [5] [6] [7]
AUTH O R CO NTR I B UTI O N S Elias Hellou involved in investigation, writing-original draft (lead), review and editing (lead). Jameel Mohsin, Fahed Hakim and Ameer Elemy involved in investigation (supporting). Mona Mustafa-Hellou involved in investigation (supporting), writing-review and editing (supporting). Shadi Hamou involved in writing-original draft, review and editing (equal). CO N FLI C T O F I NTE R E S T The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of interest.
Armaly, Kinaneh, Skorecki, Renal manifestations of Covid-19: physiology and pathophysiology, J Clin Med, doi:10.3390/jcm10061216
Azzi, Bartash, Scalea, Loarte-Campos, Akalin, COVID-19 and solid organ transplantation: a review article, Transplantation, doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000003523
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 -final report, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007764
Campbell, Cole, Bunditrutavorn, Vella, Ascorbic acid is a potent inhibitor of various forms of T cell apoptosis, Cell Immunol, doi:10.1006/cimm.1999.1485
Caricchio, Gallucci, Dass, Preliminary predictive criteria for COVID-19 cytokine storm, Ann Rheum Dis, doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218323
Cazzola, Rogliani, Salvi, Ora, Matera, Use of thiols in the treatment of COVID-19: current evidence, Lung, doi:10.1007/s00408-021-00465-3
Chernyak, Popova, Prikhodko, Grebenchikov, Zinovkina et al., COVID-19 and oxidative stress
Crawford, Dingens, Eguia, Dynamics of neutralizing antibody titers in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, J Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa618
Dagcioglu, Keskin, Guner, Thiol levels in mild or moderate Covid-19 patients: a comparison of variant and classic Covid-19 cases, Int J Clin Pract, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14753
Derouiche, Oxidative stress associated with SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) increases the severity of the lung disease -a systematic review, J Infect Dis Epidemiol, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510121
Efferth, Li, Konkimalla, Kaina, From traditional Chinese medicine to rational cancer therapy, Trends Mol Med, doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2007.07.001
Fajgenbaum, June, Cytokine storm, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMra2026131
Fo R M Ati O N ; Hellou, Mohsin, Elemy, Hakim, Mustafa-Hellou et al., Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of the article at the publisher's website, J Cell Mol Med
Fowler Aa 3rd, Truwit, Hite, Effect of Vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure: the CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.11825
Gadoth, Halbrook, Blais, Cross-sectional assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care workers in Los Angeles, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M20-7580
Garibaldi, Wang, Robinson, Comparison of time to clinical improvement with vs without remdesivir treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, JAMA Netw Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3071
Gavriatopoulou, Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Korompoki, Emerging treatment strategies for COVID-19 infection, Clin Exp Med, doi:10.1007/s10238-020-00671-y
Group, Horby, Lim, Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2021436
Group, Horby, Mafham, Effect of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2022926
Guan, Ni, Hu, Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Huang, Wang, Tan, Liu, Ni, High-dose vitamin C intravenous infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis, Medicine, doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000025876
Huang, Wang, Yang, A review of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the reproductive system, J Chin Med Assoc, doi:10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000388
Iwai, Horiuchi, Devil and angel in the renin-angiotensin system: ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 receptor axis vs. ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis, Hypertens Res, doi:10.1038/hr.2009.74
Kamidani, Rostad, Anderson, COVID-19 vaccine development: a pediatric perspective, Curr Opin Pediatr, doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000978
Li, Moore, Vasilieva, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature02145
Liu, Vanblargan, Bloyet, Identification of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations that attenuate monoclonal and serum antibody neutralization, Cell Host Microbe, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2021.01.014
Mathew, Giles, Baxter, Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications, Science, doi:10.1126/science.abc8511
Moghadamtousi, Kadir, Hassandarvish, Tajik, Abubakar et al., A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin, Biomed Res Int, doi:10.1155/2014/186864
Mp, N-acetylcysteine as a potential treatment for COVID-19, Future Microbiol, doi:10.2217/fmb-2020-0074
Myrstad, Ihle-Hansen, Tveita, National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) on admission predicts severe disease and inhospital mortality from Covid-19 -a prospective cohort study, Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med, doi:10.1186/s13049-020-00764-3
Ohl, Miller, Lund, Association of remdesivir treatment with survival and length of hospital stay among US veterans hospitalized with COVID-19, JAMA Netw Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.14741
Ou, Boyarsky, Zeiser, Kidney transplant recipient attitudes toward a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, Transplant Direct, doi:10.1097/TXD.0000000000001171
Ragab, Salah Eldin, Taeimah, Khattab, Salem, The COVID-19 cytokine storm; what we know so far, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01446
Rizk, Kalantar-Zadeh, Mehra, Lavie, Rizk et al., Pharmaco-immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19, Drugs, doi:10.1007/s40265-020-01367-z
Romano, Chebabo, Levi, Past, present, and future of COVID-19: a review, Braz J Med Biol Res, doi:10.1590/1414-431x202010475
Russell, Millar, Baillie, Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30317-2
Santos, Ferreira, Silva, Recent advances in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin(1-7)-Mas axis, Exp Physiol, doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2008.042002
Siddiqui, Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview, Indian J Pharm Sci, doi:10.4103/0250-474X.93507
Sivaloganathan, Ladikou, Chevassut, COVID-19 mortality in patients on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, Br J Haematol, doi:10.1111/bjh.16968
Spagnolo, Balestro, Aliberti, Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to COVID-19: a call to arms?, Lancet Respir Med, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30222-8
Tang, Liu, Zhang, Xu, Wen, Cytokine storm in COVID-19: the current evidence and treatment strategies, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01708
Tsuda, Renin-Angiotensin system and sympathetic neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system of hypertension, Int J Hypertens, doi:10.1155/2012/474870
Tu, Artemisinin-A gift from traditional Chinese medicine to the world (Nobel Lecture), Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, doi:10.1002/anie.201601967
Valle, Kim-Schulze, Huang, An inflammatory cytokine signature predicts COVID-19 severity and survival, Nat Med, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-1051-9
Wan, Shang, Graham, Baric, Li, Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus, J Virol, doi:10.1128/JVI.00127-20
Wang, Nair, Liu, Antibody resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03398-2
Wang, Teo, Teo, Chai, Virtual reality as a bridge in palliative care during COVID-19, J Palliat Med, doi:10.1089/jpm.2020.0212
Weisblum, Schmidt, Zhang, Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants, Elife, doi:10.7554/eLife.61312
Wilson, Wiysonge, Social media and vaccine hesitancy, BMJ Glob Health, doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004206
Yanay, Freiman, Shapira, Experience with SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in dialysis patients, Kidney Int, doi:10.1016/j.kint.2021.04.006
Yang, Yu, Xu, Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a singlecentered, retrospective, observational study, Lancet Respir Med, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5
Yedjou, Njiki, Enow, Pharmacological effects of selected medicinal plants and vitamins against COVID-19, J Food Nutr, doi:10.17303/jfn.2021.7.202
Yedjou, Njiki, Enow, Pharmacological effects of selected medicinal plants and vitamins against COVID-19, Jacobs J Food Nutr, doi:10.17303/jfn.2021.7.202
Zhang, Dong, Cao, Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China, Allergy, doi:10.1111/all.14238
Zhang, Zhao, Zhang, The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): the perspectives of clinical immunologists from China, Clin Immunol, doi:10.1016/j.clim.2020.108393
Zhao, Zhao, Wang, Zhou, Ma et al., Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, doi:10.1164/rccm.202001-0179LE
Zhu, Zhang, Wang, A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop