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Inadequate Physical Activity Is Associated with Worse Physical Function in a Sample of COVID-19 Survivors with Post-Acute Symptoms

Galluzzo et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12072517
Mar 2023  
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Exercise for COVID-19
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Retrospective 1,846 post-acute COVID-19 patients in Italy, showing inadequate physical activity after recovering from COVID-19 associated with lower physical function.
Galluzzo et al., 27 Mar 2023, Italy, peer-reviewed, 12 authors, study period 21 April, 2020 - 31 December, 2021. Contact: v91galluzzo@gmail.com (corresponding author).
This PaperExerciseAll
Inadequate Physical Activity Is Associated with Worse Physical Function in a Sample of COVID-19 Survivors with Post-Acute Symptoms
Vincenzo Galluzzo, Maria Beatrice Zazzara, Francesca Ciciarello, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Cristina Pais, Giulia Savera, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Francesco Landi
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12072517
Background-Patients affected by Long COVID often report shorter times spent doing physical activity (PA) after COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential associations between PA levels and parameters of physical function in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors with postacute symptoms, with a particular focus on individuals aged 65 and older. Materials and methods-PA levels before and after COVID-19 were assessed in a sample of patients that had recovered from COVID-19 and were admitted to a post-acute outpatient service at the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS (Rome, Italy). Participation in PA was operationalized as the engagement in leisure-time PA for at least 150 min per week in the last 3 months. Self-rated health and measures of physical performance and muscle strength were assessed. Results-Mean age of 1846 participants was 55.2 ± 14.4 years and 47% were women. Before COVID-19, inactivity was detected in 47% of the whole study population; only 28% maintained pre-COVID-19 PA engagement. Inactivity was more frequent in women. The stopping of physical activity was associated with increased BMI and CRP levels, lower vitamin D levels and a higher prevalence of post-COVID-19 fatigue, dyspnea, arthralgia, and myalgia. Active participants had higher handgrip strength and performed better on both the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and at the one-minute sit-to-stand test (1MSTST). In particular, at the 6MWT, participants 65 and older that were still active after COVID-19 walked 32 m more than sedentary peers. Moreover, the distance covered was 28 m more than those who were active only before COVID-19 (p = 0.05). Formerly active subjects performed similarly at the 6MWT to inactive participants. PA was associated with better self-rated health. Conclusions-Our findings reveal that inactivity is frequent in the post-acute COVID-19 phase. Stopping physical activity after COVID-19 results in measures of performance that are comparable to those who were never active. Relevant differences in the distance covered at the 6MWT were found between older active subjects and their sedentary peers.
Funding: The study was unconditionally supported by Fondazione Angelini, Fondazione Memmo, Danone, Nutricia. Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Rome, Italy) (IRB number: 32/20). Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: None of the participants in the
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/jcm12072517', 'ISSN': ['2077-0383'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072517', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Background—Patients affected by Long COVID often report shorter times spent doing ' 'physical activity (PA) after COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential ' 'associations between PA levels and parameters of physical function in a cohort of COVID-19 ' 'survivors with post-acute symptoms, with a particular focus on individuals aged 65 and older. ' 'Materials and methods—PA levels before and after COVID-19 were assessed in a sample of ' 'patients that had recovered from COVID-19 and were admitted to a post-acute outpatient ' 'service at the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS (Rome, Italy). ' 'Participation in PA was operationalized as the engagement in leisure-time PA for at least 150 ' 'min per week in the last 3 months. Self-rated health and measures of physical performance and ' 'muscle strength were assessed. Results—Mean age of 1846 participants was 55.2 ± 14.4 years ' 'and 47% were women. Before COVID-19, inactivity was detected in 47% of the whole study ' 'population; only 28% maintained pre-COVID-19 PA engagement. Inactivity was more frequent in ' 'women. The stopping of physical activity was associated with increased BMI and CRP levels, ' 'lower vitamin D levels and a higher prevalence of post-COVID-19 fatigue, dyspnea, arthralgia, ' 'and myalgia. Active participants had higher handgrip strength and performed better on both ' 'the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and at the one-minute sit-to-stand test (1MSTST). In ' 'particular, at the 6MWT, participants 65 and older that were still active after COVID-19 ' 'walked 32 m more than sedentary peers. Moreover, the distance covered was 28 m more than ' 'those who were active only before COVID-19 (p = 0.05). Formerly active subjects performed ' 'similarly at the 6MWT to inactive participants. PA was associated with better self-rated ' 'health. Conclusions—Our findings reveal that inactivity is frequent in the post-acute ' 'COVID-19 phase. Stopping physical activity after COVID-19 results in measures of performance ' 'that are comparable to those who were never active. Relevant differences in the distance ' 'covered at the 6MWT were found between older active subjects and their sedentary ' 'peers.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['jcm12072517'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4620-5979', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Galluzzo', 'given': 'Vincenzo', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Zazzara', 'given': 'Maria Beatrice', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Ciciarello', 'given': 'Francesca', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5750-9746', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Tosato', 'given': 'Matteo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Martone', 'given': 'Anna Maria', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Pais', 'given': 'Cristina', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Savera', 'given': 'Giulia', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5472-2365', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Calvani', 'given': 'Riccardo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7032-3487', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Picca', 'given': 'Anna', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9567-6983', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Geriatrics and Orthopedics, Università Cattolica ' 'del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Marzetti', 'given': 'Emanuele', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, ' '00168 Rome, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Geriatrics and Orthopedics, Università Cattolica ' 'del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy'}], 'family': 'Landi', 'given': 'Francesco', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'name': 'on behalf of Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Team', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Clinical Medicine', 'container-title-short': 'JCM', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-03-27T09:34:30Z', 'timestamp': 1679909670000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-03-27T10:31:53Z', 'timestamp': 1679913113000}, 'funder': [{'name': 'Fondazione Angelini, Fondazione Memmo, Danone, Nutricia'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 28]], 'date-time': '2023-03-28T04:41:14Z', 'timestamp': 1679978474414}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '7', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '7', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2023-03-27T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1679875200000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/12/7/2517/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '2517', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 27]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9', 'article-title': 'Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases ' 'worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy', 'author': 'Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '219', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': 'ref_1', 'volume': '380', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/JAHA.115.002495', 'article-title': 'Quantifying the Association Between Physical Activity and ' 'Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and ' 'Meta-Analysis', 'author': 'Wahid', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e002495', 'journal-title': 'J. 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Late treatment
is less effective
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