Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 72% Improvement Relative Risk Secondary infection 23% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Batur et al.  ICU PATIENTS Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 194 patients in Turkey (March 2020 - June 2021) Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) Batur et al., Diagnostics, December 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association between Vitamin D Status and Secondary Infections in Patients with Severe COVID-19 Admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary-Level Hospital in Turkey

Batur et al., Diagnostics, doi:10.3390/diagnostics13010059
Dec 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 194 ICU patients and 30 non-COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. There was significantly higher COVID-19 mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly higher risk of secondary hospital infections.
Severe COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency may have increased risks due to secondary infections.
This is the 153rd of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion). This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted differences between groups.
risk of death, 71.9% lower, RR 0.28, p < 0.001, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 17 of 76 (22.4%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 94 of 118 (79.7%), NNT 1.7.
secondary infection, 23.3% lower, RR 0.77, p = 0.03, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 40 of 76 (52.6%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 81 of 118 (68.6%), NNT 6.2, growth in culture.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Batur et al., 26 Dec 2022, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 2 authors, study period March 2020 - June 2021.
Contact: (corresponding author).
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between Vitamin D Status and Secondary Infections in Patients with Severe COVID-19 Admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary-Level Hospital in Turkey
Lutfiye Karcioglu Batur, Suna Koç
Diagnostics, doi:10.3390/diagnostics13010059
There are several studies showing that the vitamin D status can determine risk of COVID-19 infections, severity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 . However, the association between vitamin D (25(OH)D) and secondary infections in the prognosis of COVID-19 patients has not been reported yet. The aim was to investigate whether the vitamin D status affects the rates of secondary infections in patients with severe COVID-19 hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-level hospital in Turkey. The data of 194 patients with diagnosis of severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the ICU from March 2020 to June 2021 and older than 18 years were evaluated in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups according to total serum 25(OH)D level as normal group (≥20 ng/mL) and low group (<20 ng/mL). The 25(OH)D level was low in 118 (60.8%) and normal in 76 (39.2%) patients. The mean age of the low group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (67.02 ± 14.47 vs. 61.70 ± 14.38; p = 0.013). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as the Glasgow coma scale score of the low group were significantly lower than that of the normal group (p = 0.004, 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). The intubation rate and APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) score of the low group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (p = 0.001). The platelets number and blood pH decreased, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, lactate, urea, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations increased significantly in the low group (p < 0.05). The mortality rate was 79.7% in the low group and 22.4% in the normal group (p < 0.001). Microbiological growth was observed in 68.6% of the normal group and 52.6% of the normal group (p = 0.025). The number of cultures with resistant bacteria was significantly higher in the low group (25.9%) than that in the normal group (17.5%) (p = 0.035). The severe COVID-19 patients hospitalized with vitamin D deficiency may have increased risks of poor prognosis and mortality due to secondary infections in the ICU.
Author Contributions: L.K.B. designed the study and S.K. collected the patient data. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Agrawal, Yin, Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases, J. Inflamm. Res, doi:10.2147/JIR.S63898
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J. Infect. Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.021
Alipio, Vitamin D supplementation could possibly improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with coronavirus-2019 (COVID, SSRN Electron. J, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3571484
Batur, Özaydın, Maviş, Gürsu, Harbige et al., Vitamin-D Binding Protein Gene Polymorphisms and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D in a Turkish Population, Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11100696
Bavishi, Maddox, Messerli, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection and Renin Angiotensin System Blockers, JAMA Cardiol, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1282
Cannell, Vieth, Umhau, Holick, Grant et al., Epidemic influenza and vitamin D, Epidemiol. Infect, doi:10.1017/S0950268806007175
Caricchio, Gallucci, Dass, Zhang, Gallucci et al., Preliminary predictive criteria for COVID-19 cytokine storm, Ann. Rheum. Dis, doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218323
Carlberg, Vitamin D Signaling in the Context of Innate Immunity: Focus on Human Monocytes, Front. Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02211
Dimitrov, White, Species-specific regulation of innate immunity by vitamin D signaling, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.09.016
Faul, Kerley, Love, O'neill, Cody et al., Vitamin D deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 infection, Ir. Med. J
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Hanna, Ferrey, Rhee, Sam, Pearce et al., Building a hemodiafiltration system from readily available components for continuous renal replacement therapy under disasters and pandemics: Preparing for an acute kidney injury surge during COVID-19, Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens, doi:10.1097/MNH.0000000000000658
Jin, Cai, Cheng, Cheng, Deng et al., A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version), Mil. Med. Res, doi:10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6
Kara, Ekiz, Ricci, Kara, Chang et al., Scientific Strabismus' or two related pandemics: Coronavirus disease and vitamin D deficiency, Br. J. Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114520001749
Klapholz, Pentakota, Zertuche, Mckenna, Roque et al., Matched Cohort Study of Convalescent COVID-19 Plasma Treatment in severely or life threateningly ill COVID-19 patients, Open Forum. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab001
Lin, Mulick, Mathur, Smeeth, Warren-Gash et al., The association between vitamin D status and COVID-19 in England: A cohort study using UK Biobank, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0269064
Liu, Sun, Wang, Zhang, Zhao et al., Low vitamin D status is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Int. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.077
Maha, Talal, Can Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Susceptibility to COVID-19?, Front. Physiol, doi:10.3389/fphys.2021.630956
Mahdavi, A brief review of interplay between vitamin D and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Implications for a potential treatment for COVID-19, Rev. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.2119
Marazuela, Giustina, Puig-Domingo, Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord, doi:10.1007/s11154-020-09569-2
Martineau, Jolliffe, Demaret, Vitamin D and Tuberculosis, Vitam. D
Masmouei, Harorani, Bazrafshan, Karimi, COVID-19: Hyperinflammatory Syndrome and Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb, Blood Purif, doi:10.1159/000512199
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Naja, Hamadeh, Nutrition amid the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-level framework for action, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr, doi:10.1038/s41430-020-0634-3
Panfili, Roversi, D'argenio, Rossi, Cappa et al., Possible role of vitamin D in COVID-19 infection in pediatric population, J. Endocrinol. Investig, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01327-0
Pereira, Dantas Damascena, Galvão Azevedo, De Almeida Oliveira, Da Mota Santana, Vitamin D deficiency aggravates COVID-19: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr, doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1841090
Quesada-Gomez, Castillo, Bouillon, Vitamin d receptor stimulation to reduce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) in patients with Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infections: Revised ms sbmb 2020_166, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105719
Simonovich, Pratx, Scibona, Beruto, Vallone et al., A Randomized Trial of Convalescent Plasma in COVID-19 Severe Pneumonia, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2031304
Speeckaert, Delanghe, Association between low vitamin D and COVID-19: Don't forget the vitamin D binding protein, Aging Clin. Exp. Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01607-y
Sullivan, Gebo, Shoham, Bloch, Lau et al., Early Outpatient Treatment for COVID-19 with Convalescent Plasma, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2119657
Szeto, Zucker, Lasota, Rubin, Walker et al., Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients, Endocr. Res, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162
Tay, Poh, Rénia, Macary, Ng, The trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, inflammation and intervention, Nat. Rev. Immunol, doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0311-8
Wang, Joshi, Leopold, Jackson, Christensen et al., Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 infection severity: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Clin. Endocrinol, doi:10.1111/cen.14540
Wittebole, Montiel, Mesland, Is there a role for immune-enhancing therapies for acutely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019?, Curr. Opin. Crit. Care, doi:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000862
Xu, Yang, Chen, Luo, Zhang et al., Vitamin D alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via regulation of the renin-angiotensin system, Mol. Med. Rep, doi:10.3892/mmr.2017.7546
Yisak, Ewunetei, Kefale, Mamuye, Teshome et al., Effects of Vitamin D on COVID-19 Infection and Prognosis: A Systematic Review, Risk Manag. Healthc. Policy, doi:10.2147/RMHP.S291584
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop