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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 47% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Arambepola et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 208 patients in India Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.27) Arambepola et al., Research Square, Mar 2024 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The role of vitamin D as a preventive strategy in COVID-19 infections: evidence from South Asia

Arambepola et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Mar 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Case-control study of 104 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 104 healthy controls in Sri Lanka, showing significantly lower serum vitamin D levels in cases compared to controls, and in moderate/severe cases compared to mild cases. There was a higher risk of cases with vitamin D deficiency, without statistical significance.
This is the 195th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of case, 47.4% lower, OR 0.53, p = 0.27, high D levels (≥50nmol/L) 17 of 104 (16.3%) cases, 30 of 104 (28.8%) controls, NNT 5.6, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥50nmol/L), case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Arambepola et al., 28 Mar 2024, retrospective, India, preprint, 6 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The role of vitamin D as a preventive strategy in COVID-19 infections: evidence from South Asia
Carukshi Arambepola, Ruwanika Seneviratne, Sumedha Wijeratne, Nalika Gunawardena, Ruwan Wijayamuni, Deepika Attygalle
Background Regional evidence on prevention of COVID-19 and its sequalae by vitamin D remains inconclusive and sparse. Aim/Objective This study aimed to determine the association between COVID-19 and Vitamin D de ciency among adults in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Methods A sex-matched case-control study was conducted among 104 RT-PCR-con rmed COVID-19 patients and 104 RT-PCR negative adults recruited from community. Non-fasting blood samples were analysed for serum 25(OH)D using chemiluminescence assay and vitamin D de ciency identi ed (< 50.0nmol/L). Results Cases (34.2; SD = 15.4nmol/L) had signi cantly lower 25(OH)D compared to controls (39.8; SD = 17.8nmol/L) (p = 0.02) which persisted after adjustments (p = 0.02), along with Sinhalese ethnicity (p < 0.001). VDD was signi cantly more prevalent in cases (83.7% vs. 71.2%; crude odds ratio (OR) = 2.1; 95%-CI:1.1,4.1), although not an independent COVID-19 predictor (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95%-CI:0.6,5.7). A signi cantly lower 25(OH)D level was observed in moderate/severe cases (39.7; SD = 12.3nmol/L) vs mild (32.9; SD = 15.8nmol/L) (p = 0.015). Neither low serum concentrations nor de ciency showed an independent relationship with severity (p > 0.05). Diabetes was the sole predictor of COVID-19 severity (p = 0.022). Conclusions Vitamin D has potential as a cost-effective primary, but not secondary, preventive strategy.
Alguwaihes, Sabico, Hasanato, Severe vitamin D de ciency is not related to SARS-CoV-2 infection but may increase mortality risk in hospitalized adults: a retrospective case-control study in an Arab Gulf country, Aging Clin Exp Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-021-01831-0
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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