Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study during the First Pandemic Wave
Alahmari et al.
, Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study..
, Healthcare, doi:10.3390/healthcare10071201
Retrospective 977 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing significantly shorter hospitalization with zinc treatment.
hospitalization time, 30.2% lower, relative time 0.70, p < 0.001, treatment mean 6.39 (±0.76) n=130, control mean 9.15 (±0.27) n=847.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alahmari et al., 27 Jun 2022, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period 1 May, 2020 - 30 July, 2020.
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Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among
COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study
during the First Pandemic Wave
Abdullah K. Alahmari 1, * , Ziyad S. Almalki 1 , Ahmed A. Albassam 1 , Mohammed M. Alsultan 2 ,
Ahmed M. Alshehri 1 , Nehad J. Ahmed 1 and Abdulhadi M. Alqahtani 3
Citation: Alahmari, A.K.;
Almalki, Z.S.; Albassam, A.A.;
Alsultan, M.M.; Alshehri, A.M.;
Ahmed, N.J.; Alqahtani, A.M. Factors
Associated with Length of Hospital
Stay among COVID-19 Patients in
Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study
during the First Pandemic Wave.
Healthcare 2022, 10, 1201. https://
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Di
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University,
Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; firstname.lastname@example.org (Z.S.A.); email@example.com (A.A.A.);
firstname.lastname@example.org (A.M.A.); email@example.com (N.J.A.)
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University,
Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia; firstname.lastname@example.org
Clinical Research Department, Research Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 12231, Saudi Arabia;
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected healthcare systems and tested their preparedness. To date, the length of hospital stay (LoHS) and its factors among COVID-19 patients has not
been thoroughly studied. Moreover, it is essential to identify the features of these patients. Adult
COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia with complete electronic medical records and who were hospitalised for >1 day between 1 May 2020 and 30 July 2020 at one of two hospitals were considered for
this retrospective cohort study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate generalized linear models were
performed using the data. Of the patients, 34% were ≥50 years old and 80.14% were female. More
than 70% had mild-to-moderate symptoms; 45% had either diabetes or hypertension. The median
LoHS was 7.00 days (IQR: 3–11). Patients who were females, had either critical or severe disease,
were on mechanical ventilation, had diabetes, and administered ceftriaxone had significantly longer
LoHS (p < 0.05). Patients administered zinc sulphate had significantly shorter LoHS (p = 0.0008).
During the first pandemic wave, COVID-19 patients were hospitalised for 7 days. Healthcare professionals should pay more attention to women, patients with diabetes, and those with severe or
critical symptoms. Unnecessary use of ceftriaxone should be minimised, and zinc sulphate can
Martino, Tommaso Staniscia, Fabrizio
Cedrone and Mustafa Z. Younis
Keywords: COVID-19; hospital stay; hospitalisation; health systems
Received: 8 April 2022
Accepted: 21 June 2022
Published: 27 June 2022
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