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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 45% unadjusted Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Tylicki et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 85 patients in Poland (October 2020 - February 2021) Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.019) Tylicki et al., Viruses, February 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Increase While Active Vitamin D May Decrease the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis

Tylicki et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v14030451
Feb 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 85 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower severity with existing vitamin D use. Patients in this study are also analyzed in Tylicki.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: patients in this study are a subset of those in a larger study.
risk of severe case, 45.4% lower, RR 0.55, p = 0.02, high D levels 20 of 57 (35.1%), low D levels 18 of 28 (64.3%), NNT 3.4, unadjusted, severe vs. mild changes.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tylicki et al., 22 Feb 2022, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period 6 October, 2020 - 28 February, 2021, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Increase While Active Vitamin D May Decrease the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis
Piotr Tylicki, Karolina Polewska, Aleksander Och, Anna Susmarska, Ewelina Puchalska-Reglińska, Aleksandra Parczewska, Bogdan Biedunkiewicz, Krzysztof Szabat, Marcin Renke, Leszek Tylicki, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
Viruses, doi:10.3390/v14030451
The group most at risk of death due to COVID-19 are patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The study aims to describe the clinical course of the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection and find predictors of the development of COVID-19 severe pneumonia in this population. This is a case series of HD nonvaccinated patients with COVID-19 stratified into mild pneumonia and severe pneumonia group according to the chest computed tomography (CT) pneumonia total severity score (TSS) on admission. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from hospital records. 85 HD patients with a mean age of 69.74 (13.19) years and dialysis vintage of 38 (14-84) months were included. On admission, 29.14% of patients had no symptoms, 70.59% reported fatigue followed by fever-44.71%, shortness of breath-40.0%, and cough-30.59%. 20% of the patients had finger oxygen saturation less than 90%. In 28.81% of patients, pulmonary parenchyma was involved in at least 25%. The factors associated with severe pneumonia include fever, low oxygen saturation and arterial partial pressure of oxygen, increased C-reactive protein and ferritin serum levels, low blood count of lymphocytes as well as chronic treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; while the chronic active vitamin D treatment was associated with mild pneumonia. In conclusion, even though nearly one-third of the patients were completely asymptomatic, while the remaining usually reported only single symptoms, a large percentage of them had extensive inflammatory changes at diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We identified potential predictors of severe pneumonia, which might help individualize pharmacological treatment and improve clinical outcomes.
Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https://www., Table S1
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