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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 14% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Tylicki et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 133 patients in Poland (October 2020 - February 2021) No significant difference in mortality Tylicki et al., J. Clinical Medicine, Jan 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Predictors of Mortality in Hemodialyzed Patients after SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Tylicki et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11020285
Jan 2022  
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Retrospective 133 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower mortality with existing vitamin D use, without statistical significance.
This is the 65th of 115 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 30 sextillion). 27 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00002.
risk of death, 14.4% lower, RR 0.86, p = 0.61, treatment 28 of 85 (32.9%), control 25 of 48 (52.1%), NNT 5.2, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tylicki et al., 6 Jan 2022, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 6 October, 2020 - 28 February, 2021, dosage not specified.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Predictors of Mortality in Hemodialyzed Patients after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Leszek Tylicki, Ewelina Puchalska-Reglińska, Piotr Tylicki, Aleksander Och, Karolina Polewska, Bogdan Biedunkiewicz, Aleksandra Parczewska, Krzysztof Szabat, Jacek Wolf, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11020285
Introduction: The determinants of COVID-19 mortality are well-characterized in the general population. Less numerous and inconsistent data are among the maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients, who are the population most at risk of an unfavorable prognosis. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included all adult HD patients from the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized between 6 October 2020 and 28 February 2021, both those who survived, and also those who died. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data on admission, were extracted from the electronic medical records of the dedicated hospital and patients' dialysis unit, and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with 3-month all-cause mortality. Results: The 133 patients (53.38% males) aged 73.0 (67-79) years, with a median duration of hemodialysis of 42.0 (17-86) months, were included in this study. At diagnosis, the majority were considered to have a mild course (34 of 133 patients were asymptomatic, another 63 subjects presented mild symptoms), while 36 (27.07%) patients had low blood oxygen saturation and required oxygen supplementation. Three-month mortality was 39.08% including an in-hospital case fatality rate of 33.08%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the frailty clinical index of 4 or greater (OR 8.36,; p < 0.01), D-Dimer of 1500 ng/mL or greater (6.00, 1.94-18.53; p < 0.01), and CRP of >118 mg/L at admission (3.77 1.09-13.01; p = 0.04) were found to be predictive of mortality. Conclusion: Very high 3-month all-cause mortality in hospitalized HD patients was determined mainly by frailty. High CRP and D-dimer levels upon admission further confer mortality risk.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, L.T.; methodology, A.O., P.T., K.P., E.P.-R., A.P., K.S., J.W. and L.T.; collecting data, A.O., P.T., K.P., E.P.-R., A.P., K.S. and B.B.; data analysis, A.O., P.T., K.P., E.P.-R., J.W. and L.T.; writing-original draft preparation, L.T.; writing-review and editing, B.B., E.P.-R., A.D.-Ś., J.W. and L.T.; visualization, P.T., J.W. and L.T.; supervision, A.D.-Ś. and L.T. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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