Lifestyle, course of COVID-, and risk of Long-COVID in non-hospitalized patients
Introduction: The coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic remains a great challenge for the healthcare system. The widely reported prolonged signs and symptoms resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-) infection (Long-COVID) require medical care. The aim of the study was to assess factors, including lifestyle variables, related to the course of COVID-infection and to assess their impact on prolonged symptoms in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-. Methods: A total of , ( men and , women) non-hospitalized participants of the STOP-COVID registry of the PoLoCOV-Study who, following the COVID-, underwent check-up examinations at the cardiology outpatient clinic were included in the analysis. Results: The study participants (median age [ -] years) were evaluated at . ( . -. ) weeks following the diagnosis of COVID-. Female sex (odds ratio [OR] . [ % CI . -. ]), body mass index (BMI; per kg/m : . [ . -. ]), hypertension ( . [ . -. ]), asthma ( . [ . -. ]), stress or overworking ( . [ . -. ]), and nightshift work ( . [ . -. ]) were independently related to the severity of symptoms during acute phase of the COVID-infection. The Long-COVID syndrome was independently related to the female sex ( . [ . -. ]), history of myocardial infarction ( . [ . -. ]), asthma ( . [ . -. ]), and severe course of the acute phase of the COVID-infection ( . [ . -. ]).
Conclusion: Female sex, BMI, asthma, hypertension, nightshifts, and stress or overworking are significantly related to the severity of the acute phase of the COVID-infection, while female sex, asthma, history of myocardial infarction, and the severity of symptoms in the acute phase of COVID-are the predictors of Long-COVID in non-hospitalized patients. We did not find an independent relation between Long-COVID and the studied lifestyle factors.
we have also observed an association between higher values of BMI and a symptomatic course of COVID-19. Furthermore, it seems that obesity-related chronic inflammations and processes of immunometabolism not only promote a severe clinical course of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection but also contribute to a Long-COVID-19 syndrome (38) . However, we did not confirm this in
Ethics statement The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Bioethics Committee of Lodz Regional Medical Chamber-No. 0115/2021. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.
Author contributions Conceptualization: MC and MP-J. Data curation and methodology: MC, MP-J, and PJ. Formal analysis: MB and JK. Investigation, visualization, and writing-review and editing: MC, MP-J, MB, JK, and PJ. Project administration: MC. Supervision and validation: MC and PJ. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer,..
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