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Tetrandrine for COVID-19

Tetrandrine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
Jeon et al., Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.20.999730
AbstractCOVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease and was recently declared as a pandemic by WHO. Currently, there is no vaccine or therapeutic available for this disease. Drug repositioning represents the only feasible option to address this global challenge and a panel of 48 FDA-approved drugs that have been pre-selected by an assay of SARS-CoV was screened to identify potential antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found a total of 24 drugs which exhibited antiviral efficacy (0.1 μM < IC50 < 10 μM) against SARS-CoV-2. In particular, two FDA-approved drugs - niclosamide and ciclesonide – were notable in some respects. These drugs will be tested in an appropriate animal model for their antiviral activities. In near future, these already FDA-approved drugs could be further developed following clinical trials in order to provide additional therapeutic options for patients with COVID-19.
Riva et al., A Large-scale Drug Repositioning Survey for SARS-CoV-2 Antivirals, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.044016
AbstractThe emergence of novel SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of severe pneumonia-like disease designated as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, more than 2.1 million confirmed cases and 139,500 deaths have been reported worldwide, and there are currently no medical countermeasures available to prevent or treat the disease. As the development of a vaccine could require at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline from hit finding to drug registration of an antiviral is >10 years, repositioning of known drugs can significantly accelerate the development and deployment of therapies for COVID-19. To identify therapeutics that can be repurposed as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals, we profiled a library of known drugs encompassing approximately 12,000 clinical-stage or FDA-approved small molecules. Here, we report the identification of 30 known drugs that inhibit viral replication. Of these, six were characterized for cellular dose-activity relationships, and showed effective concentrations likely to be commensurate with therapeutic doses in patients. These include the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor Apilimod, cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825, and ONO 5334, and the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897. Since many of these molecules have advanced into the clinic, the known pharmacological and human safety profiles of these compounds will accelerate their preclinical and clinical evaluation for COVID-19 treatment.
Xiao et al., Identification of potent and safe antiviral therapeutic candidates against SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.188953
AbstractCOVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people with mortality exceeding 300,000. There is an urgent need to find therapeutic agents that can help clear the virus to prevent the severe disease and death. Identifying effective and safer drugs can provide with more options to treat the COVID-19 infections either alone or in combination. Here we performed a high throughput screen of approximately 1700 US FDA approved compounds to identify novel therapeutic agents that can effectively inhibit replication of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our two-step screen first used a human coronavirus strain OC43 to identify compounds with anti-coronaviral activities. The effective compounds were then screened for their effectiveness in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. These screens have identified 24 anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs including previously reported compounds such as hydroxychloroquine, amlodipine, arbidol hydrochloride, tilorone 2HCl, dronedarone hydrochloride, and merfloquine hydrochloride. Five of the newly identified drugs had a safety index (cytotoxic/effective concentration) of >600, indicating wide therapeutic window compared to hydroxychloroquine which had safety index of 22 in similar experiments. Mechanistically, five of the effective compounds were found to block SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated cell fusion. These FDA approved compounds can provide much needed therapeutic options that we urgently need in the midst of the pandemic.
Dittmar et al., Drug repurposing screens reveal FDA approved drugs active against SARS-Cov-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.161042
AbstractThere are an urgent need for antivirals to treat the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2. To identify new candidates we screened a repurposing library of ~3,000 drugs. Screening in Vero cells found few antivirals, while screening in human Huh7.5 cells validated 23 diverse antiviral drugs. Extending our studies to lung epithelial cells, we found that there are major differences in drug sensitivity and entry pathways used by SARS-CoV-2 in these cells. Entry in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells is pH-independent and requires TMPRSS2, while entry in Vero and Huh7.5 cells requires low pH and triggering by acid-dependent endosomal proteases. Moreover, we found 9 drugs are antiviral in lung cells, 7 of which have been tested in humans, and 3 are FDA approved including Cyclosporine which we found is targeting Cyclophilin rather than Calcineurin for its antiviral activity. These antivirals reveal essential host targets and have the potential for rapid clinical implementation.
Xiao et al., Identification of Potent and Safe Antiviral Therapeutic Candidates Against SARS-CoV-2, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.586572
COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people with mortality exceeding >1 million. There is an urgent need to find therapeutic agents that can help clear the virus to prevent severe disease and death. Identifying effective and safer drugs can provide more options to treat COVID-19 infections either alone or in combination. Here, we performed a high throughput screening of approximately 1,700 US FDA-approved compounds to identify novel therapeutic agents that can effectively inhibit replication of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our two-step screen first used a human coronavirus strain OC43 to identify compounds with anti-coronaviral activities. The effective compounds were then screened for their effectiveness in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. These screens have identified 20 anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs including previously reported compounds such as hydroxychloroquine, amlodipine besylate, arbidol hydrochloride, tilorone 2HCl, dronedarone hydrochloride, mefloquine, and thioridazine hydrochloride. Five of the newly identified drugs had a safety index (cytotoxic/effective concentration) of >600, indicating a wide therapeutic window compared to hydroxychloroquine which had a safety index of 22 in similar experiments. Mechanistically, five of the effective compounds (fendiline HCl, monensin sodium salt, vortioxetine, sertraline HCl, and salifungin) were found to block SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated cell fusion. These FDA-approved compounds can provide much needed therapeutic options that we urgently need during the midst of the pandemic.
Saul et al., Anticancer pan-ErbB inhibitors reduce inflammation and tissue injury and exert broad-spectrum antiviral effects, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.15.444128
AbstractTargeting host factors exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions for pandemic preparedness. Seventeen candidates targeting diverse functions emerged in a screen of 4,413 compounds for SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. We demonstrated that lapatinib and other approved inhibitors of the ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases suppress replication of SARS-CoV-2, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and other emerging viruses with a high barrier to resistance. Lapatinib suppressed SARS-CoV-2 entry and later stages of the viral life cycle and showed synergistic effect with the direct-acting antiviral nirmatrelvir. We discovered that ErbB1, 2 and 4 bind SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein and regulate viral and ACE2 internalization, and they are required for VEEV infection. In human lung organoids, lapatinib protected from SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of ErbB-regulated pathways implicated in non-infectious lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and epithelial barrier injury. Lapatinib suppressed VEEV replication, cytokine production and disruption of the blood-brain barrier integrity in microfluidic-based human neurovascular units, and reduced mortality in a lethal infection murine model. We validated lapatinib-mediated inhibition of ErbB activity as an important mechanism of antiviral action. These findings reveal regulation of viral replication, inflammation, and tissue injury via ErbBs and establish a proof-of-principle for a repurposed, ErbB-targeted approach to combat emerging viruses.
Zaa et al., Neuroprotective Agents with Therapeutic Potential for COVID-19, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom13111585
COVID-19 patients can exhibit a wide range of clinical manifestations affecting various organs and systems. Neurological symptoms have been reported in COVID-19 patients, both during the acute phase of the illness and in cases of long-term COVID. Moderate symptoms include ageusia, anosmia, altered mental status, and cognitive impairment, and in more severe cases can manifest as ischemic cerebrovascular disease and encephalitis. In this narrative review, we delve into the reported neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19, as well as the underlying mechanisms contributing to them. These mechanisms include direct damage to neurons, inflammation, oxidative stress, and protein misfolding. We further investigate the potential of small molecules from natural products to offer neuroprotection in models of neurodegenerative diseases. Through our analysis, we discovered that flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and other natural compounds exhibit neuroprotective effects by modulating signaling pathways known to be impacted by COVID-19. Some of these compounds also directly target SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Therefore, molecules of natural origin show promise as potential agents to prevent or mitigate nervous system damage in COVID-19 patients. Further research and the evaluation of different stages of the disease are warranted to explore their potential benefits.
Jeon et al., Identification of Antiviral Drug Candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-Approved Drugs, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1128/AAC.00819-20
Drug repositioning is the only feasible option to immediately address the COVID-19 global challenge. We screened a panel of 48 FDA-approved drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which were preselected by an assay of SARS-CoV. We identified 24 potential antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some drug candidates showed very low 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 s), and in particular, two FDA-approved drugs—niclosamide and ciclesonide—were notable in some respects.
Fani et al., Targeting host calcium channels and viroporins: a promising strategy for SARS-CoV-2 therapy, Future Virology, doi:10.2217/fvl-2022-0203
Despite passing the pandemic phase of the COVID-19, researchers are still investigating various drugs. Previous evidence suggests that blocking the calcium channels may be a suitable treatment option. Ca2+ is required to enhance the fusion process of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also, some important inflammatory factors during SARS-CoV-2 infection are dependent on Ca2+ level. On the other hand, viroporins have emerged as attractive targets for antiviral therapy due to their essential role in viral replication and pathogenesis. By inhibiting the host calcium channels and viroporins, it is possible to limit the spread of infection. Therefore, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and drugs targeting Viroporins can be considered an effective option in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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