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Ternatin-4 for COVID-19

Ternatin-4 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Cesar-Silva et al., The Endolysosomal System: The Acid Test for SARS-CoV-2, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23094576
This review aims to describe and discuss the different functions of the endolysosomal system, from homeostasis to its vital role during viral infections. We will initially describe endolysosomal system’s main functions, presenting recent data on how its compartments are essential for host defense to explore later how SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) and other coronaviruses subvert these organelles for their benefit. It is clear that to succeed, pathogens’ evolution favored the establishment of ways to avoid, escape, or manipulate lysosomal function. The unavoidable coexistence with such an unfriendly milieu imposed on viruses the establishment of a vast array of strategies to make the most out of the invaded cell’s machinery to produce new viruses and maneuvers to escape the host’s defense system.
Gordon et al., A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.002386
ABSTRACTAn outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), which identified 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 existing FDA-approved drugs, drugs in clinical trials and/or preclinical compounds, that we are currently evaluating for efficacy in live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. The identification of host dependency factors mediating virus infection may provide key insights into effective molecular targets for developing broadly acting antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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