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Rutin for COVID-19

Rutin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Srus et al., In Silico study of Wheatgrass constituents against Coronavirus COVID-19 Proteins., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1167417/v1
Abstract As a result of COVID-19, the coronavirus associated with SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as the most lethal and infectious pandemic in history. Vaccines alone cannot assure us of a healthy future. As a result, drug production must go hand in hand with vaccine production. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of certain chemical constituents of Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum Linn.,) that may be useful for treatment of COVID19. Seven chemical constituents of Wheatgrass, including Ascobic acid (SWA00A), Rutin (SWA00B), Ferulic acid (SWA00C), quercetin (SWA00D), Luteolin (SWA00E), Apigenin (SWA00F), and Kaempferol (SWA00G), were used for virtual screening. Covid19 viral proteins such as 6lu7-SARS-CoV2 main protease, 6zsl-SARS-CoV-2 helicase, 6w9c-papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, and 6m71-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were selected for study. Drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 namely Remdesivir, Darunavir, Ralimetinib, Berzosertib, Alpha-interferon, Arabinol, Chloroquine phosphate, Indinavir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Plegylated alfa interferon, 2-chloro-2-deoxy-D-glucose are taken as standards. Molecular docking was performed using the PyRx Virtual Screening tool. Among all 7 chemical components, Rutin (SWA00B) had the strongest binding affinity. According to the present study, Rutin present in Wheatgrass shows the highest potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Wheatgrass has promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties, but further research is needed to prove their efficacy in vivo.
Alkafaas et al., A study on the effect of natural products against the transmission of B.1.1.529 Omicron, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02160-6
Abstract Background The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic resulted in a successful vaccination program launched by the World Health Organization. However, a large population is still unvaccinated, leading to the emergence of mutated strains like alpha, beta, delta, and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Recent reports from the World Health Organization raised concerns about the Omicron variant, which emerged in South Africa during a surge in COVID-19 cases in November 2021. Vaccines are not proven completely effective or safe against Omicron, leading to clinical trials for combating infection by the mutated virus. The absence of suitable pharmaceuticals has led scientists and clinicians to search for alternative and supplementary therapies, including dietary patterns, to reduce the effect of mutated strains. Main body This review analyzed Coronavirus aetiology, epidemiology, and natural products for combating Omicron. Although the literature search did not include keywords related to in silico or computational research, in silico investigations were emphasized in this study. Molecular docking was implemented to compare the interaction between natural products and Chloroquine with the ACE2 receptor protein amino acid residues of Omicron. The global Omicron infection proceeding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was also elucidated. The docking results suggest that DGCG may bind to the ACE2 receptor three times more effectively than standard chloroquine. Conclusion The emergence of the Omicron variant has highlighted the need for alternative therapies to reduce the impact of mutated strains. The current review suggests that natural products such as DGCG may be effective in binding to the ACE2 receptor and combating the Omicron variant, however, further research is required to validate the results of this study and explore the potential of natural products to mitigate COVID-19. Graphical abstract
Rehman et al., Natural Compounds as Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (3CLpro): A Molecular Docking and Simulation Approach to Combat COVID-19, Current Pharmaceutical Design, doi:10.2174/1381612826999201116195851
Abstract:: The emergence and dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 has caused high mortality and enormous economic loss. Rapid development of new drug molecules is the need of hour to fight COVID-19. However, the conventional approaches of drug development are time consuming and expensive. Here, we have adopted a computational approach to identify lead molecules from nature. Ligands from natural compounds library available at Selleck Inc (L1400) have been screened for their ability to bind and inhibit the main protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2. We found that Kaempferol, Quercetin, and Rutin were bound at the substrate binding pocket of 3CLpro with high affinity (105-106 M-1) and interact with the active site residues such as His41 and Cys145 through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In fact, the binding affinity of Rutin (~106 M-1) was much higher than Chloroquine (~103 M-1) and Hydroxychloroquine (~104 M-1), and the reference drug Remdesivir (~105 M-1). The results suggest that natural compounds such as flavonoids have the potential to be developed as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 with a comparable/higher potency as that of Remdesivir. However, their clinical usage on COVID-19 patients is a subject of further investigations and clinical trials.
Katre et al., Review on development of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro), Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1186/s43094-022-00423-7
Abstract Background The etiological agent for the coronavirus illness outbreak in 2019–2020 is a novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19), whereas coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has compelled the implementation of novel therapeutic options. Main body of the abstract There are currently no targeted therapeutic medicines for this condition, and effective treatment options are quite restricted; however, new therapeutic candidates targeting the viral replication cycle are being investigated. The primary protease of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus is a major target for therapeutic development (MPro). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) all seem to have a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that can be used to develop novel protease inhibitors. Short conclusion With the recent publication of the X-ray crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Mm, virtual and in vitro screening investigations to find MPro inhibitors are fast progressing. The focus of this review is on recent advancements in the quest for small-molecule inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Kouznetsova et al., Potential SARS-CoV-2 protease Mpro inhibitors: repurposing FDA-approved drugs, Physical Biology, doi:10.1088/1478-3975/abcb66
Abstract Using as a template the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, we developed a pharmacophore model of functional centers of the protease inhibitor-binding pocket. With this model, we conducted data mining of the conformational database of FDA-approved drugs. This search brought 64 compounds that can be potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 protease. The conformations of these compounds undergone 3D fingerprint similarity clusterization. Then we conducted docking of possible conformers of these drugs to the binding pocket of the protease. We also conducted the same docking of random compounds. Free energies of the docking interaction for the selected compounds were clearly lower than random compounds. Three of the selected compounds were carfilzomib, cyclosporine A, and azithromycin—the drugs that already are tested for COVID-19 treatment. Among the selected compounds are two HIV protease inhibitors and two hepatitis C protease inhibitors. We recommend testing of the selected compounds for treatment of COVID-19.
Abarova et al., Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols from Geranium sanguineum L. in Viral Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom14010130
The existing literature supports the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral capacities of the polyphenol extracts derived from Geranium sanguineum L. These extracts exhibit potential in hindering viral replication by inhibiting enzymes like DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. The antiviral properties of G. sanguineum L. seem to complement its immunomodulatory effects, contributing to infection resolution. While preclinical studies on G. sanguineum L. suggest its potential effectiveness against COVID-19, there is still a lack of clinical evidence. Therefore, the polyphenols extracted from this herb warrant further investigation as a potential alternative for preventing and treating COVID-19 infections.
Sokouti, B., A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
Güler et al., Investigation of potential inhibitor properties of ethanolic propolis extracts against ACE-II receptors for COVID-19 treatment by Molecular Docking Study, ScienceOpen, doi:10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PP5BWN4.v1
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related carboxypeptidase, ACE-II, is a type I integral membrane protein of 805 amino acids that contains one HEXXH-E zinc binding consensus sequence. ACE-II has been implicated in the regulation of heart function and also as a functional receptor for the coronavirus that causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In this study, the potential of some flavonoids present in propolis to bind to ACE II receptors was calculated in silico. Binding constants of ten flavonoids, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, chrysin, galangin, myricetin, rutin, hesperetin, pinocembrin, luteolin and quercetin were measured using the AutoDock 4.2 molecular docking program. And also, these binding constants were compared to reference ligand of MLN-4760. The results are shown that rutin has the best inhibition potentials among the studied molecules with high binding energy -8,97 kcal/mol and Ki 0,261 M, and it is followed by myricetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, hesperetin and pinocembrin. However, the reference molecule has binding energy of -7,28 kcal/mol and 4,65 M. In conclusion, the high potential of flavonoids in ethanolic propolis extracts to bind to ACE II receptors indicates that this natural bee product has high potential for Covid- 19 treatment, but this needs to be supported by experimental studies.
El-Hosari et al., Galangal–Cinnamon Spice Mixture Blocks the Coronavirus Infection Pathway through Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 MPro, Three HCoV-229E Targets; Quantum-Chemical Calculations Support In Vitro Evaluation, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16101378
Natural products such as domestic herbal drugs which are easily accessible and cost-effective can be used as a complementary treatment in mild and moderate COVID-19 cases. This study aimed to detect and describe the efficiency of phenolics detected in the galangal–cinnamon mixture in the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2’s different protein targets. The potential antiviral effect of galangal–cinnamon aqueous extract (GCAE) against Low Pathogenic HCoV-229E was assessed using cytopathic effect inhibition assay and the crystal violet method. Low Pathogenic HCoV-229E was used as it is safer for in vitro laboratory experimentation and due to the conformation and the binding pockets similarity between HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 MPro. The GCAE showed a significant antiviral effect against HCoV-229E (IC50 15.083 µg/mL). Twelve phenolic compounds were detected in the extract with ellagic, cinnamic, and gallic acids being the major identified phenolic acids, while rutin was the major identified flavonoid glycoside. Quantum-chemical calculations were made to find molecular properties using the DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. Quantum-chemical values such as EHOMO, ELUMO, energy gap, ionization potential, chemical hardness, softness, and electronegativity values were calculated and discussed. Phenolic compounds detected by HPLC-DAD-UV in the GCAE were docked into the active site of 3 HCoV-229E targets (PDB IDs. 2ZU2, 6U7G, 7VN9, and 6WTT) to find the potential inhibitors that block the Coronavirus infection pathways from quantum and docking data for these compounds. There are good adaptations between the theoretical and experimental results showing that rutin has the highest activity against Low Pathogenic HCoV-229E in the GCAE extract.
Souza et al., Molecular Docking and ADME-TOX Profiling of Moringa oleifera Constituents against SARS-CoV-2, Advances in Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.3390/arm91060035
The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2019) etiological agent, which has a high contagiousness and is to blame for the outbreak of acute viral pneumonia, is the cause of the respiratory disease COVID-19. The use of natural products grew as an alternative treatment for various diseases due to the abundance of organic molecules with pharmacological properties. Many pharmaceutical studies have focused on investigating compounds with therapeutic potential. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential antiviral compounds from a popular medicinal plant called Moringa oleifera Lam. against the spike, Mpro, ACE2, and RBD targets of SARS-CoV-2. For this, we use molecular docking to identify the molecules with the greatest affinity for the targets through the orientation of the ligand with the receptor in complex. For the best results, ADME-TOX predictions were performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds using the online tool pkCSM. The results demonstrate that among the 61 molecules of M. oleifera, 22 molecules showed promising inhibition results, where the compound ellagic acid showed significant molecular affinity (−9.3 kcal.mol−1) in interaction with the spike protein. These results highlight the relevance of investigating natural compounds from M. oleifera as potential antivirals against SARS-CoV-2; however, additional studies are needed to confirm the antiviral activity of the compounds.
Singh et al., Flavonoids as Potent Inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp13 Helicase: Grid Based Docking Approach, Middle East Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.36348/merjps.2023.v03i04.001
The corona virus (COVID-19) is an enveloped RNA virus with diverse origins in both people and wildlife. It has been determined that six separate species are the cause of human disease. Viral infections have a significant impact on human disease, and one of the most recent worldwide epidemics is the emergence of the new corona. The SS-RNA virus from the enveloped corona virus family is what caused the potentially lethal SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus. In many countries throughout the world, sickness is spreading quickly. As of March 26, 2020, there has been 462,684 confirmed cases and 20,834 fatalities documented abroad. COVID-19 was deemed a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Numerous drug studies are now underway, and some of the results are positive. The only way to combat the virus, however, is through preventative measures as there is no vaccination. The goal of the current study was to use a molecular docking approach to evaluate flavonoids's potential against SAR-CoV-2 infection. Elucidation of the proposed mechanism of action of natural flavonoid (Quercetin, Isorhametin, Rutin and Tamaraxiten) against SAR-CoV-2 infection.
Badhe, A., In Silico study of Wheatgrass constituents against Coronavirus COVID-19 Proteins., Center for Open Science, doi:10.31219/osf.io/kg7yx
<p>Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus associated with SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as an unparalleled global health crisis, marked by its extreme lethality and contagion. While vaccines offer a critical defence, they alone cannot guarantee a healthy future. Thus, alongside vaccine production, the development of effective treatments is imperative. This study is driven by exploring the therapeutic capabilities of specific chemical constituents found in Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum Linn.) that hold potential for treating COVID-19. Seven distinct chemical constituents from Wheatgrass—namely, Ascorbic acid (SWA00A), Rutin (SWA00B), Ferulic acid (SWA00C), quercetin (SWA00D), Luteolin (SWA00E), Apigenin (SWA00F), and Kaempferol (SWA00G)—were subjected to virtual screening.The focus of this investigation encompassed COVID-19 viral proteins: 6lu7-SARS-CoV-2 main protease, 6zsl-SARS-CoV-2 helicase, 6w9c-papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, and 6m71-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. As reference points, established drugs used in COVID-19 treatment, including Remdesivir, Darunavir, Ralimetinib, Berzosertib, Alpha-interferon, Arabinol, Chloroquine phosphate, Indinavir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Plegylated alfa interferon, and 2-chloro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, were employed as standards. Leveraging the PyRx Virtual Screening tool, molecular docking analyses were executed.Rutin (SWA00B) showcased the most formidable binding affinity among the seven chemical constituents evaluated. This study's findings highlight the robust potential of Rutin, a component present in Wheatgrass, to inhibit key SARS-CoV-2 proteins. While Wheatgrass displays promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties, it's pivotal to underscore the necessity for further in-depth research to ascertain their efficacy within in vivo settings</p>
Onyango, O., In Silico Models for Anti-COVID-19 Drug Discovery: A Systematic Review, Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1155/2023/4562974
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe worldwide pandemic. Due to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and the presence of only one Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-COVID-19 drug (remdesivir), the disease remains a mindboggling global public health problem. Developing anti-COVID-19 drug candidates that are effective against SARS-CoV-2 and its various variants is a pressing need that should be satisfied. This systematic review assesses the existing literature that used in silico models during the discovery procedure of anti-COVID-19 drugs. Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed were used to conduct a literature search to find the relevant articles utilizing the search terms “In silico model,” “COVID-19,” “Anti-COVID-19 drug,” “Drug discovery,” “Computational drug designing,” and “Computer-aided drug design.” Studies published in English between 2019 and December 2022 were included in the systematic review. From the 1120 articles retrieved from the databases and reference lists, only 33 were included in the review after the removal of duplicates, screening, and eligibility assessment. Most of the articles are studies that use SARS-CoV-2 proteins as drug targets. Both ligand-based and structure-based methods were utilized to obtain lead anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Sixteen articles also assessed absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET), and drug-likeness properties. Confirmation of the inhibitory ability of the candidate leads by in vivo or in vitro assays was reported in only five articles. Virtual screening, molecular docking (MD), and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) emerged as the most commonly utilized in silico models for anti-COVID-19 drug discovery.
Rafiq et al., A Comprehensive Update of Various Attempts by Medicinal Chemists to Combat COVID-19 through Natural Products, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28124860
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global panic because of its continual evolution and recurring spikes. This serious malignancy is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the outbreak, millions of people have been affected from December 2019 till now, which has led to a great surge in finding treatments. Despite trying to handle the pandemic with the repurposing of some drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ivermectin, etc., against COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues its out-of-control spread. There is a dire need to identify a new regimen of natural products to combat the deadly viral disease. This article deals with the literature reports to date of natural products showing inhibitory activity towards SARS-CoV-2 through different approaches, such as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. Natural compounds targeting the proteins of SARS-CoV-2—the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), spike proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), endoribonuclease, exoribonuclease, helicase, nucleocapsid, methyltransferase, adeno diphosphate (ADP) phosphatase, other nonstructural proteins, and envelope proteins—were extracted mainly from plants, and some were isolated from bacteria, algae, fungi, and a few marine organisms.
Alanzi et al., Structure-based virtual identification of natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 and its Delta and Omicron variant proteins, Future Virology, doi:10.2217/fvl-2022-0184
Aim: Structure-based identification of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron target proteins. Materials &amp; methods: Several known antiviral natural compounds were subjected to molecular docking and MD simulation against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, Helicase and Spike, including Delta and Omicron Spikes. Results: Of the docked ligands, 20 selected for each complex exhibited overall good binding affinities (-7.79 to -5.06 kcal/mol) with acceptable physiochemistry following Lipinski's rule. Finally, two best ligands from each complex upon simulation showed structural stability and compactness. Conclusion: Quercetin-3-acetyl-glucoside, Rutin, Kaempferol, Catechin, Orientin, Obetrioside and Neridienone A were identified as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, Helicase and Spike, while Orientin and Obetrioside also showed good binding-affinities with Omicron Spike. Catechin and Neridienone A formed stable complexes with Delta Spike.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Bajrai et al., In vitro screening of anti-viral and virucidal effects against SARS-CoV-2 by Hypericum perforatum and Echinacea, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-26157-3
AbstractHypericum perforatum and Echinacea are reported to have antiviral activities against several viral infections. In this study, H. perforatum (St. John’s Wort) and Echinacea were tested in vitro using Vero E6 cells for their anti-viral effects against the newly identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through its infectious cycle from 0 to 48 h post infection. The hypericin of H. perforatum and the different parts (roots, seeds, aerial) of two types of Echinacea species (Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia) were tested for their anti-viral activities to measure the inhibition of viral load using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on cell culture assay. Interestingly, the H. perforatum-Echinacea mixture (1:1 ratio) of H. perforatum and Echinacea was tested as well on SARS-CoV-2 and showed crucial anti-viral activity competing H. perforatum then Echinacea effects as anti-viral treatment. Therefore, the results H. perforatum and Echinacea species, applied in this study showed significant anti-viral and virucidal effects in the following order of potency: H. perforatum, H. perforatum-Echinacea mixture, and Echinacea on SARS-CoV-2 infectious cycle. Additionally, molecular simulation analysis of the compounds with essential proteins (Mpro and RdRp) of the SARS-CoV-2 revealed the most potent bioactive compounds such as Echinacin, Echinacoside, Cyanin, Cyanidin 3-(6''-alonylglucoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, Proanthocyanidins, Rutin, Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and Quercetin-3-O-xyloside. Thus, based on the outcome of this study, it is demanding the setup of clinical trial with specific therapeutic protocol.
Amalia et al., The Potential of Phyllanthus Niruri Plant Secondary Metabolites in Providing Antiviral Protection Against Sars-Cov-2: A Literature Review, KnE Medicine, doi:10.18502/kme.v2i3.11915
Covid-19 is a disease that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. The Covid-19 pandemic has spread throughout the world. Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant that has been empirically shown to be an antiviral. This study aimed to determine the potential of Phyllanthus niruri and its compounds as an antiviral for SARS-CoV-2 through a literature review. The data were analyzed descriptively using the NVIVO 12 Plus software. The parameters used were the hierarchy chart, cluster analysis, and world cloud. The results showed that two secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus niruri have the potential to provide antiviral protection against SARS-CoV-2, namely quercetin and rutin. Further research is needed to examine the validity of these findings through triangulation of the scientific reports and research in the laboratory.&#x0D; Keywords: antivirus, Phyllanthus niruri, SARS-CoV-2
Rizzuti et al., Sub-Micromolar Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro by Natural Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph14090892
Inhibiting the main protease 3CLpro is the most common strategy in the search for antiviral drugs to fight the infection from SARS-CoV-2. We report that the natural compound eugenol is able to hamper in vitro the enzymatic activity of 3CLpro, the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, with an inhibition constant in the sub-micromolar range (Ki = 0.81 μM). Two phenylpropene analogs were also tested: the same effect was observed for estragole with a lower potency (Ki = 4.1 μM), whereas anethole was less active. The binding efficiency index of these compounds is remarkably favorable due also to their small molecular mass (MW &lt; 165 Da). We envision that nanomolar inhibition of 3CLpro is widely accessible within the chemical space of simple natural compounds.
Flores-Félix et al., Consumption of Phenolic-Rich Food and Dietary Supplements as a Key Tool in SARS-CoV-19 Infection, Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10092084
The first cases of COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, were reported in December 2019. The vertiginous worldwide expansion of SARS-CoV-2 caused the collapse of health systems in several countries due to the high severity of the COVID-19. In addition to the vaccines, the search for active compounds capable of preventing and/or fighting the infection has been the main direction of research. Since the beginning of this pandemic, some evidence has highlighted the importance of a phenolic-rich diet as a strategy to reduce the progression of this disease, including the severity of the symptoms. Some of these compounds (e.g., curcumin, gallic acid or quercetin) already showed capacity to limit the infection of viruses by inhibiting entry into the cell through its binding to protein Spike, regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, disrupting the replication in cells by inhibition of viral proteases, and/or suppressing and modulating the host’s immune response. Therefore, this review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential of phenolics to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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