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Ketorolac for COVID-19

Ketorolac has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Bess et al., Identification of oral therapeutics using an AI platform against the virus responsible for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2023.1297924
Purpose: This study introduces a sophisticated computational pipeline, eVir, designed for the discovery of antiviral drugs based on their interactions within the human protein network. There is a pressing need for cost-effective therapeutics for infectious diseases (e.g., COVID-19), particularly in resource-limited countries. Therefore, our team devised an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system to explore repurposing opportunities for currently used oral therapies. The eVir system operates by identifying pharmaceutical compounds that mirror the effects of antiviral peptides (AVPs)—fragments of human proteins known to interfere with fundamental phases of the viral life cycle: entry, fusion, and replication. eVir extrapolates the probable antiviral efficacy of a given compound by analyzing its established and predicted impacts on the human protein-protein interaction network. This innovative approach provides a promising platform for drug repurposing against SARS-CoV-2 or any virus for which peptide data is available.Methods: The eVir AI software pipeline processes drug-protein and protein-protein interaction networks generated from open-source datasets. eVir uses Node2Vec, a graph embedding technique, to understand the nuanced connections among drugs and proteins. The embeddings are input a Siamese Network (SNet) and MLPs, each tailored for the specific mechanisms of entry, fusion, and replication, to evaluate the similarity between drugs and AVPs. Scores generated from the SNet and MLPs undergo a Platt probability calibration and are combined into a unified score that gauges the potential antiviral efficacy of a drug. This integrated approach seeks to boost drug identification confidence, offering a potential solution for detecting therapeutic candidates with pronounced antiviral potency. Once identified a number of compounds were tested for efficacy and toxicity in lung carcinoma cells (Calu-3) infected with SARS-CoV-2. A lead compound was further identified to determine its efficacy and toxicity in K18-hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2.Computational Predictions: The SNet confidently differentiated between similar and dissimilar drug pairs with an accuracy of 97.28% and AUC of 99.47%. Key compounds identified through these networks included Zinc, Mebendazole, Levomenol, Gefitinib, Niclosamide, and Imatinib. Notably, Mebendazole and Zinc showcased the highest similarity scores, while Imatinib, Levemenol, and Gefitinib also ranked within the top 20, suggesting their significant pharmacological potentials. Further examination of protein binding analysis using explainable AI focused on reverse engineering the causality of the networks. Protein interaction scores for Mebendazole and Imatinib revealed their effects on notable proteins such as CDPK1, VEGF2, ABL1, and several tyrosine protein kinases.Laboratory Studies: This study determined that Mebendazole, Gefitinib, Topotecan and to some extent Carfilzomib showed conventional drug-response curves,..
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