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Green Tea for COVID-19

Green Tea has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Joseph et al., The use of Pseudotyped Coronaviruses for the Screening of Entry Inhibitors: Green Tea Extract Inhibits the Entry of SARS-CoV-1, MERSCoV, and SARS-CoV-2 by Blocking Receptor-spike Interaction, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, doi:10.2174/1389201022666210810111716
Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of animals and birds. Their tropism is primarily determined by the ability of the spike protein to bind to a host cell surface receptor. The ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 inculcates the need for the development of effective intervention strategies. Objectives: In this study, we aim to produce pseudotyped coronaviruses of SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and show its applications, including virus entry, neutralization, and screening of entry inhibitors from natural products. Methods: Here, we generated VSV-based pseudotyped coronaviruses (CoV-PVs) for SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Recombinant spike proteins of SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 were transiently expressed in HEK293T cells followed by infection with recombinant VSV. High titer pseudoviruses were harvested and subjected to distinct validation assays, which confirms the proper spike pseudotyping. Further, specific receptor-mediated entry was confirmed by antibody neutralization and soluble form of receptor inhibition assay on Vero E6 cells. Next, these CoV-PVs were used for screening of antiviral activity of natural products such as green tea and Spirulina extract. Results: Here, we generated VSV-based pseudotyped coronaviruses (CoV-PVs) for SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Recombinant spike proteins of SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 were transiently expressed in HEK293T cells followed by infection with recombinant VSV. High titer pseudoviruses were harvested and subjected to distinct validation assays, which confirms the proper spike pseudotyping. Further, specific receptor-mediated entry was confirmed by antibody neutralization and soluble form of receptor inhibition assay on Vero E6 cells. Next, these CoV-PVs were used for screening of antiviral activity of natural products such as green tea and Spirulina extract. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrated that pseudotyped viruses are an ideal tool for studying viral entry, quantification of neutralizing antibodies, and screening of entry inhibitors in a BSL-2 facility. Moreover, green tea might be a promising natural remedy against emerging coronaviruses.
Mousavi et al., Novel Drug Design for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1155/2022/2044282
Background. Since the beginning of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease outbreak, there has been an increasing interest in discovering potential therapeutic agents for this disease. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review through an overview of drug development (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) for treating COVID-19. Methods. A systematic search was carried out in major databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from December 2019 to March 2021. A combination of the following terms was used: coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, drug design, drug development, In silico, In vitro, and In vivo. A narrative synthesis was performed as a qualitative method for the data synthesis of each outcome measure. Results. A total of 2168 articles were identified through searching databases. Finally, 315 studies (266 in silico, 34 in vitro, and 15 in vivo) were included. In studies with in silico approach, 98 article study repurposed drug and 91 studies evaluated herbal medicine on COVID-19. Among 260 drugs repurposed by the computational method, the best results were observed with saquinavir (n = 9), ritonavir (n = 8), and lopinavir (n = 6). Main protease (n = 154) following spike glycoprotein (n = 62) and other nonstructural protein of virus (n = 45) was among the most studied targets. Doxycycline, chlorpromazine, azithromycin, heparin, bepridil, and glycyrrhizic acid showed both in silico and in vitro inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion. The preclinical studies of novel drug design for COVID-19 focused on main protease and spike glycoprotein as targets for antiviral development. From evaluated structures, saquinavir, ritonavir, eucalyptus, Tinospora cordifolia, aloe, green tea, curcumin, pyrazole, and triazole derivatives in in silico studies and doxycycline, chlorpromazine, and heparin from in vitro and human monoclonal antibodies from in vivo studies showed promised results regarding efficacy. It seems that due to the nature of COVID-19 disease, finding some drugs with multitarget antiviral actions and anti-inflammatory potential is valuable and some herbal medicines have this potential.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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